International Tundra Experiment ITEX 1990 wwwsystbotguseresearchitexitex html

In 1990, the International Tundra Experiment (ITEX) was established as a MAB-NSN (Man and Biosphere Northern Sciences Network) initiative. Since then the program has grown rapidly, and is today one of the most active international field programs in Arctic ecology. The purpose of ITEX is to monitor the performance of plant species and communities on a circumpolar basis in undisturbed habitats with and without environmental manipulations. At present, there are over 20 active ITEX field sites...

Fellfields

Fell-field has been used to describe physical and landscape forms as well as specific plant communities. As a landscape form, fell-fields refer to tracts of bare, high mountainous ground with sparse vegetation. The Danish botanist Eugenius Warming first used the expression in his classic exploration of the relationships between plants and their environment (Oecology of Plants. An Introduction to the Study of Plant Communities, 1909), classifying extensive areas of northeast Greenland as...

Great Northern Diver and White Billed Diver

Gavia immer, the great northern diver (Europe), also known as common loon (North America), Tuullik (Greenlandic), Himbrimi (Icelandic), Islom (Norwegian), and Gavia adamsii, the white-billed diver (Europe), also known as yellow-billed loon (North America), are both large birds (3 6 kg in weight) and have heavy stout bills that of the great northern is straight and black, and that of the white-billed diver is cream colored and appears up-tilted. Both have glossy black hoods interrupted by...

Dempster Highway

In the late 1950s, potentially rich deposits of hydrocarbons in the Beaufort Delta and Eagle Plains areas of the Northwest Territories and Yukon, respectively, catalyzed the development of the Dempster Highway. This was the first highway into the Arctic region of Canada, and was part of Prime Minister John Diefenbaker's Roads to Resources program (1957), aimed at providing a transportation network for new resource development and towns. The Dempster highway became the largest, most ambitious,...

Arctic Norway

Arctic Norway includes the north of Norway, mainly the county of Finnmarken. Economic development takes advantage of the closeness to the North Atlantic Ocean and the fact that the Gulf Stream secures icefree harbors. The harbor in Narvik ships Swedish iron around the world. The sea route from Bergen to Nordkap has functioned as an economic development corridor transporting both products and passengers both south-north and north-south. Svalbard, the Arctic territory under Norwegian sovereignty...

The Declaration and the Strategy

The ministerial conference that followed the September 1989 meeting in Rovaniemi represented a breakthrough in the development of international cooperation for the protection of the Arctic and led to the adoption of the Declaration in 1991. The Declaration adopted a joint action plan of the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (AEPS). The objectives of the strategy were designed as follows to cooperate in scientific research and to include indigenous peoples and their organizations to study...

Economic Inventory Of The Soviet Polar North 192627

The economic inventory in the Soviet North was conducted in 1926 27 by the USSR Central Statistical Board (CSB) in compliance with the Council of People's Commissars Order of March 23, 1926. Parts of 12 large administrative regions of that time's Russia were covered by the inventory. If modern administrative division is used, the inventory area would approximately coincide with the following territories Murmansk Region, Nenets, Yamal-Nenets, Khanty-Mansy, Taymyr and Evenki Autonomous Districts,...

Environmentalism

Environmentalism concern about the state of the environment and the impacts of human activities has been an influential theme in Arctic affairs, both affecting, and in turn influenced by, economic activities, the status and organization of indigenous peoples, and relations between circumpolar nations. Broader ideological concerns, such as the diversity of views of the Arctic as resource frontier, wilderness, or homeland have also been significant. Arctic environmental concerns were evident soon...

Bartlett Robert

Robert Abram Bartlett, one of the most significant Arctic sailing masters of his era, was born in Brigus, Newfoundland, in 1875. As a young man, he shipped out on a series of sealing vessels in the polar regions, where he learned to handle vessels under extreme conditions. In 1898, Bartlett became the first mate on the Windward, the ship that Robert Peary used in his first attempt to reach the North Pole in 1898-1899. Peary offered Bartlett command of the Roosevelt, Peary's primary exploration...

Birthplace Criteria

The birthplace criterion, as part of the Greenland Civil Servants Act, was used in Greenland until 1991. It determined a person's salary and other conditions of work according to their place of birth. Since World War II, during the period characterized as the era of modernization in Greenland, there was a need to attract qualified personnel from outside Greenland because there were not enough well-educated Greenlanders. The personnel were needed both by the Danish state in its work in Greenland...

Canadian Inuit

Arctic dwellers in Canada, from west to east, include the Inuvialuit or Mackenzie Delta Inuit, Copper Inuit, Netsilingmiut, Iglulingmiut, Sallirmiut, Caribou Inuit, and Nunatsiarmiut (Baffinland Inuit). Although each group had distinctive styles, the basic clothing patterns, materials, and construction were very similar. Men's parkas were shorter in front than at the back and had tight-fitting, pointed hoods anchored at the back by a single hood root. The back flaps of men's parkas were longer,...

Dorset Culture

The Dorset Culture was first defined by Diamond Jenness in 1925 when he analyzed artifacts from Cape Dorset, southern Baffin Island. Since then, Dorset sites have been found in all parts of the eastern Arctic, from Victoria Island in the west to eastern Greenland, and from Peary Land in far northern Greenland to Newfoundland where the Dorset flourished in the most southern expanses occupied by Paleo-Eskimo peoples. Chronologically, Dorset spans from approximately 2800 BP to 700 BP. Throughout...

The Earths Heat Engine

The weather and climate of the Earth are primarily controlled by the energy from the sun. Large amounts of solar radiation are received in the equatorial regions and much of this energy is then transported by the atmosphere and the oceans to the middle and high latitudes, where it is lost as infrared or heat radiation back into space. This system, which keeps the equatorial regions from overheating and the polar regions from continuously cooling, is sometimes called the Earth's heat engine,...

Association Of Canadian Universities For Northern Studies Acuns

The Association of Canadian Universities for Northern Studies (ACUNS) represents Canada's northern and polar researchers working at member universities and colleges. Founded in 1977, in Churchill, Manitoba, as a nonprofit organization, the Association is a charitable organization with six important functions (1) to represent interests of members by promoting policies and practices that support northern scholarship, (2) to establish mechanisms through which resources can be allocated to members...

Arctic Research Prudhoe Bay and Sagwon

The general appearance of the tundra at Prudhoe Bay (70.28 N 148.37 W), Alaska, a center for oil extraction and distribution at the northern end of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, is little different from the tundra 100 km south at Sagwon (69.22 N 148.54 W) (although at Sagwon, the Sagavanirktok River, fast and cold from its origin in the snows and glaciers of the Brooks Range, flows at the foot of high and steep cliffs nothing of the sort occurs at Prudhoe Bay). Both sites have myriads of shallow...

Atassut

Atassut is one of several Greenlandic political parties. Atassut means togetherness, and the party dates to the years surrounding the transfer to Home Rule government in Greenland (1979) when more liberal and conservative politicians wanted to establish an alternative to Siumut (the Social Democratic party). Atassut began in 1976-1977 as a political movement and was officially inaugurated on April 29,1978. Atassut Nuuk was already established in the fall of 1977 (with Daniel Skifte as chair)...

Anadyr River

Anadyr River is the largest river in the Chukchi Autonomous Okrug, and flows into the Bering Sea. Its first geographical description was provided by the Russian explorer Mikhail Stadukhin in the 17th century. The word Anadyr is an adaptation in the Russian language of the Yukagir word anu-an or anu-on, which means river. In the Chukchi language it is called Yaayvaam, which means Seagull River. The river, which rises in the eastern slopes of the Aniui Range, is 1150 km long and drains into the...

Fulmar

The northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), the best known of Northern Hemisphere petrels, is the only representative of this ancient group of tube-nosed birds (order Procellariiformes) breeding in the Arctic, except for storm petrels of the Hydrobatidae family. The range of the northern fulmar is split between the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans and adjacent Arctic seas. The northern fulmar is a medium-sized stocky seabird, noticeably larger than the kittiwake. Body mass is typically 750...

Exploration Of The Arctic

The exploration of the Arctic, as that of most of the world, has historically been configured along Eurocentric lines. Native peoples already lived in the Americas, Australia, Africa, Siberia, and many other parts of the world when Europeans first discovered and explored them. Nevertheless, the Europeans tended to produce the first extant written accounts, and such historical documents and texts give some legitimacy to claims of discovery, albeit from the perspective of the West. The first...

Arutyunov Sergei

Sergei Arutyunov (Sergei Aleksandrovich Arutiunov) is a contemporary distinguished Russian scholar in the field of Arctic archaeology and anthropology. His primary research focus has been Arctic studies, although he has also conducted research on Japanese culture and history and the anthropology of Asia. Arutyunov, along with native anthropologist Dorian Sergeev, excavated several important archaeological sites on the Chukchi Peninsula, combining this research with studies of contemporary...

Ainu

The Ainu are the indigenous people of Japan. Ainu means both human and us. The predecessors of the Ainu have lived in the Ezo (present-day Hokkaido) region, the Kuril Islands, and Sakhalin Island for thousands of years. Archaeological finds suggest that the Ainu likely developed from interaction with four significant cultures over a wide span of time Epi-Jomon (250 BCE- 700 CE), Okhotsk (600-1000 CE), Satsumon (700-1200 CE), and Japanese (Walker, 2001). As early as the 12th century, Japanese...

Economic and Social Conditions

Prior to the arrival of Europeans during the past millennium, the Indians and Inuit of northern Canada engaged in subsistence economies, most of which were nomadic, where they sustained their communities through continuous practices of hunting, fishing, and gathering. Little is known about the nature of trade between indigenous societies during that time. The published trade discussion concentrates on the involvement of Canada's Aboriginal peoples in the international fur trade and the...

Environmental Issues

With incursions of industry into the Arctic, a number of environmental concerns have come to the fore. Oil and gas exploration, for example, raise concerns about the integrity of tundra. Heavy vehicles traversing off-road scour the vegetation, leaving tracks of bare ground. Without the insulating cover, the active layer melts deeper into the permafrost than in adjacent places where vegetation is intact. The tracked ground subsides through the process of thermokarst, with trenches forming as the...

Fish Farming

With an increase in the total world population and a growing demand for high-quality proteins and unsatu-rated fat, the expansion of fisheries has experienced an annual growth rate of 2.4 since 1961, compared to the annual population growth of 1.8 (FAO Fisheries Department Statistical Database, 2003). Since the late 1980s, however, population has surpassed the growth in total fish supply, decreasing the supply to a level of 13.1 kg per capita (FAO Fisheries Department Statistical Database,...

Ethnogeography

The Chuvans are ethnically derived from Yukagir clans that resided in western Chukotka along the Anyuy, Chaun, Palyavaam, and the upper part of the Amguema rivers in the 17th century. During Russian colonization in the late 1600s and early 1700s, the Chuvans became one of the first groups that had to pay yasak (a tribute mostly raised in the form of furs). Subsequently the Chuvans were used by the colonialists as allies in their struggle to subdue neighboring ethnic groups, the Chukchi and...

Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program AMAP httpwwwamapno

AMAP is an international organization established in 1991 to implement components of the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (AEPS). A program of the Arctic Council, AMAP's current objective is providing reliable and sufficient information on the status of, and threats to, the Arctic environment, and providing scientific advice on actions to be taken in order to support Arctic governments in their efforts to take remedial and preventive actions relating to contaminants. While AMAP...

Eskimology

Contemporary research in Eskimology covers a diverse field of studies of language, culture, and history in Arctic societies. By definition, research is confined to the Arctic region, and furthermore to the Inuit, Yupiit, and Aleut societies. Eskimology has traditionally had a particular focus on Greenland studies owing to the long-standing relationship between Denmark and Greenland established in the early 18th century, and the academic discipline of Eskimology is today centered at the...

Morphometry Bathymetry and Geomorphology

The Bering Sea is one of the world's largest seas. It extends 1683 km N-S and 2389 km W-E, and occupies an area of 2,344,300 km2. Its coastline is 13,340 km long. The Komandorsky-Aleutian island chain, 2260 km long, includes 150 islands with a total area of 37,840 km2. The sea's major bathymetric steps are (1) shallow (0-200 m) continental shelf (45.8 of the total area), (2) continental slope (200-3000 m, 17.4 ), and (c) deep basins (> 3000 m, 36.8 ). The volumes of water between 0-200,...

Committee Of The North

The Committee for Assistance to the Peoples of the Northern Borderlands (often abbreviated to Committee of the North in English) was created by decree of the All-Union Central Executive Committee (AUCEC or VtsIK in Russian) of the Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic on June 20, 1924. Following the Revolution and civil war, the new Soviet administrators became increasingly aware of the need to define and manage northern areas. From 1924 to 1935, the Committee was responsible for...

Physical Geography

The shores of Arkhangel'skaya Oblast' are washed by the Barents, White, and Kara seas. On land, it is bordered by Karelia, Vologodskaya and Kirovskaya Oblasts, Komi Republic, and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug of Tyumenskaya Oblast'. Arkhangel'skaya Oblast' is largely a lowland country. A few plateaulike watersheds, sometimes hilly and wet, are elevated 150-270 m above sea level (Konoshskaya and Nyandomskaya Uplands, Belomorsko-Kuloyskoye Plateau). A vast swampy Pechora Lowland comprising...

Biography

In 1715, he entered navigation school in Moscow. In 1716, he was transferred as gardemarin (a junior officer rank established in the Russian fleet in 1716 for pupils of the Naval Academy) to the St Petersburg Naval Academy. He graduated successfully in 1721 with excellent results in sciences and was raised to the rank of under-lieu-tenant. In 1722-1725, he taught navigation. On January 20, 1725, he gained the rank of lieutenant and was directed to join the...

Collectivization

Russian collectivization encompassed the solidification, indeed ratification, of the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution. Arguing that the New Economic Policy (NEP), adopted in 1921 to improve the economy and gain the trust of the peasantry, was a betrayal of the Revolution, Josef Stalin, with the support of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, turned a different course by 1927, putting a halt to the NEP (Marples, 2002). In 1928, the Party adopted Stalin's First Five-Year Plan in order to implement a...

Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention

The Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act (AWPPA) is Canadian legislation that established a maritime environmental protection zone around the waters surrounding the land and islands of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Enacted by the Canadian Government in 1970, it was developed to demonstrate Canadian sovereignty over the North West Passage. It was precedent setting in that Canada was the first coastal nation to claim an extended maritime zone of control in order to protect the marine...

Bylot Robert

Robert Bylot (sometimes spelled Billet) is one of the most enigmatic characters in early 17th-century Arctic exploration. Despite commanding, or being a central character in, four expeditions between 1610 and 1616, scholars know little about his early life or his later years. Only one island bears his name, while the men he sailed with and whose contributions were no more notable are commemorated on a much grander scale. Apparently, Bylot never entirely escaped the stigma of being one of the...

Finnbogadottir VigdiS

In 1980, Vigdis Finnbogadottir made history when she was elected president of Iceland, serving as president until 1996. Although her margin of victory was small (only 33.8 , with the nearest of three rivals getting 32.2 ), it was sufficient to make her the world's first female head of state elected by popular suffrage. As the powers of the president of Iceland are largely symbolic and ceremonial, the office did not provide her with much executive power. As an icon for women, her influence...

Arctic Athabascan Council

The Arctic Athabascan Council is an international treaty organization established to foster a greater understanding of the heritage of the Athapaskan peoples of the Arctic and Subarctic North America and to represent the interests of Athapaskan First Nation governments in the Arctic Council. Seven Athapaskan leaders from Alaska, Yukon, and the Northwest Territories signed the Council treaty in June 2000. Signatures included Chief Gary Harrison from Chickaloon Village Traditional Council, Chief...

Alaska Highway

The first effort to build an overland route toward Alaska came in 1897, when the Northwest Mounted Police completed a route survey from Dawson Creek to Fort Selkirk on the Yukon River. The survey party eventually traversed the 2600 km to Fort Selkirk, and reported that an overland route into the Yukon Territory from northern British Columbia was not feasible. The Klondike Gold Rush of 1898 presented Canada with the dilemma of maintaining sovereignty over the Yukon. To counter the construction...

Council For Yukon First Nations Cyfn

Originally known as the Council for Yukon Indians, the Council for Yukon First Nations (CYFN) was established to negotiate native land claims and self-government with the government of Canada. The Council continues to serve as a public service agency for 11 of 14 First Nations of the Yukon Territory. Concerted efforts by Yukon First Nations to address public policy concerns began in 1972, when the Yukon Native Brotherhood submitted a petition to the Canadian government protesting the effects of...

Brun Eske

In 1932, Eske Brun first came to Greenland from Denmark, where he worked in Godhavn (Qeqertarsuaq) as interim Governor of North Greenland (Landsfoged). He left again in 1933 and returned to his job in the Ministry. In the years 1925-1950, all Greenlandic affairs were administered by the Greenland Administration (Gr0nlandsstyrelsen). Brun was attached to this organization from 1934 when he was offered a job as principal. The same year he returned to Greenland, this time to Godthab (Nuuk) as...

Recent Times

In 1927, Ilimpiysky, Baikitsky, and Tungus-Chunsky National Districts united to form the Evenk National District (later the Evenki Autonomous Okrug). In the 1930s, reindeer-breeding collectives were formed, settled villages were built, and agriculture was introduced. In the 1950s, integration of collective farms took place. In 1928-1929, an alphabet on the basis of the Latin script, and since 1937 on the basis of the Russian script, was created. In 1931, the first book in the Evenki language...

History

Archaeological evidence suggests a human presence on the Chukotka peninsula before the disappearance of the Bering land bridge, which subsided 10,000 years ago, with finds dating to 70,000-50,000 BC. However, remains of the first known coastal marine mammal hunting cultures date to roughly 1400 BC. Inland Chukchi, Yukagir, Koryak, and Even moved to reindeer husbandry from subsistence hunting slightly later, possibly in the first or second centuries AD (Dikov, 1989). Semyon Dezhnev, a Cossack...

Cook Frederick

Frederick Cook, the American polar explorer, volunteered for Robert Peary's North Greenland Arctic expedition shortly after passing his medical exams in1889. Peary offered Cook a position as expedition surgeon and the expedition sailed in June 1891, establishing a base on the western coast of Greenland near Whale Sound. Cook impressed Peary with his stamina, calm temperament, and positive attitude. Confident of Cook's abilities as a leader and explorer, Peary placed Cook in charge of his base...

Beluga White Whale

The beluga or white whale (Delphinapterus leucus), known as qilalugaq in Greenlandic and Inuktitut, puugzaq in Siberian Yupik, and sisuaq in Inupiat, is a mid-sized toothed whale (odontocete). The whale is white as an adult, and beluga is derived from the Russian word for white. Males are considerably larger than females, the former reaching lengths of 5 m and weights of 900 kg. Females reach a maximum of 4 m and 600 kg. White whales lack a dorsal fin, but they have a prominent dorsal ridge...

The Productivity Paradox

How did apparently sparse vegetation support such a wide variety of large grazing mammals This question is at the heart of the debate about the steppe-tundra. There are several possible explanations, as follows (1) The steppe-tundra was a richer environment than was previously thought. Some researchers who study fossil pollen argue that the steppetundra vegetation was short, sparse, and gener ally insufficient to support large herds of grazing mammals. They believe that the fossil bones found...

Egede Ingmar

In 1975, Ingmar Egede was appointed Rector of the Greenland Teachers' College, Ilinniarfissuaq, in Nuuk. Egede was the first Greenlander to hold this appointment, a position he held until 1988. Egede was then appointed Advisor to the Greenland Minister of Culture and Education from 1988 to 1991. In 2001, Egede was appointed to the first Board of Governors of the University of the Arctic. In addition to his career in education, Egede was active across a wide range of other social, cultural, and...

Ethnohistory in the North of North America

In North America, ethnographic research on northern indigenous peoples has long remained characterized by a lack of interest in historical change. Until the 1950s, most researchers still aimed primarily at reconstructing pre-Columbian states of affairs. Changes consecutive to contact with Europeans were evident to eyewitnesses, and abundantly documented in historical sources, but they were seen as evidence of cultural disintegration, which should be disregarded in ethnographic descriptions....

Cooperatives

Arctic aboriginal peoples relied upon spontaneous cooperation within families and bands for survival, whether it was in jointly fishing the mouth of a river or hunting seals on an ice pack. To many observers outside of the Arctic, this natural co-operative tendency suggested that Arctic peoples tended embrace formal co-operative enterprises in their economic and social development as if by design. The extent to which such observations were correct remains unclear, although the concept does make...

Bourque James W

Bourque was born in northern Alberta, Canada, to a Ukrainian mother and a Cree father. By the time he died in 1996, Bourque had profoundly affected the nature and practice of renewable resource management in the Northwest Territories. Bourque grew up trapping and hunting, then became one of the first aboriginal park wardens in Wood Buffalo National Park in the Northwest Territories (1955-1963), and then a wildlife officer with the territorial government, working in several communities...

Crantz David

The German David Crantz was a Moravian teacher, missionary, secretary, historian, and author of several renowned books, among them Historie von Gr nland (The History of Greenland), based on his 14-month stay in Greenland. Crantz began to study theology at the University in Halle in 1738. While still a student he joined the Moravians and attended a seminary in Herrnhaag in Oberhessen in 1740. A year later Crantz was among the inner circle around Count Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf (1700-1760)...

Copse

Copse is a word rarely used in the context of Arctic environments. In the Greenlandic context, copse is used to describe the vegetation of bushes less than 3 m high consisting mostly of Salix glauca (willow), Alnus crispa (alder), and Betula pubescens (birch). A survey of floras and scientific publications identifies the word on only one occasion The Flora of Greenland by Bocher et al. (1968) uses copse in the English edition as a translation of the Danish Krat. Generally, copse (or sometimes...

Common Concerns and Shared Goals

Most of the residents of the eastern Arctic of Canada (Nunavut), Northern Qu bec (Nunavik), Greenland, the Saami districts of Scandinavia and the villages of Alaska, the Yukon, and the Northwest Territories are indigenous peoples. The peoples of the Arctic face opportunities and problems that transcend national boundaries. Changing lifestyles, cultural differences from dominant southern populations, and the challenge of preserving traditional ways while developing local economies and employment...

Future Projects

The WCRP Climate and Cryosphere (CliC) project, approved in March 2000, will continue any unfinished elements of ACSYS when that project concludes in 2003, but it has a global focus on the climatic role of the cryosphere. Accordingly, Arctic land ice, frozen ground, and snow cover will receive attention, as well as Arctic sea ice. Major climatic concerns are the state of the Arctic sea ice in the mid-21 st century, the parametrization of the cryosphere in climatic and hydrologic models, the...

Dry Tundra

Dry tundra is the common term for a wide range of tundra habitats from rather flat areas with very stony soil, and low, usually sparse vascular plants to rocky habitats on exposed alpine summits and ridges, characterized by low mat and cushion plants and an abundance of bare rocks. Widely used synonyms of dry tundra are ridge tundra, fell-field from the Danish field-mark or rock desert, and blockfield or the German term Felsenmeer (sea of rocks). The common environmental features of dry tundra...

Denmark Strait

Denmark Strait is in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean between Iceland and Greenland near 67o N and 27o W. It is about 600 km (370 miles) long and, at its narrowest, about 300 km (185 miles) wide. Continental shelves less than 200 m deep extend 100 km out from the coast of Iceland but less than 20 km from Greenland. The sill depth of the strait is approximately 600 m. Denmark Strait carries the primary outflow of water from the Arctic Ocean in the cold, southward-flowing East Greenland Current....

Bathurst Island

Located in the center of Canada's High Arctic, Bathurst Island has an area of about 15,500 km2. With an irregular coastline and several long inlets reaching inland, no part of the island is more than 40 km from the sea. Bathurst Island is of low relief with few mountain ranges. Several peaks reach 300 m in the north, but much of the central part is below 100 m. The highest hills in the southern half are of volcanic origin and reach a height of 335 m. The geological structure is mainly...

Current Atmospheric Temperature Trends

In the following, we will concentrate on the primary, though by far not the only, climate parameter of importance surface temperature. Direct observations, which will be central to our discussion here, date back to the 1860s, that is, the dawn of the so-called industrialized revolution. It was at this time that humans first started to expand their sphere of activity, mainly through the extensive use of natural resources. Among them were fossil fuels (oil, gas, and coal) that were needed to...

International Biological Programme IBP 19641974

The International Biological Programme (IBP) was started in 1964 and it aimed to encourage collaboration between biologists representing different fields. This was probably the first program that related biodiversity to ecosystem function. Within IBP, a Biome program was drawn up at a meeting held in Poland in 1966. At this meeting it was agreed that there should be major studies on different types of ecosystems. These ecosystems were first described as habitat groups, but soon the word biome...

Off Road Vehicle

One of the most widespread forms of disturbance throughout the circumpolar Arctic is that caused by tracked vehicles operating off-road. Such vehicles, essentially tanks, first appeared in the Arctic in the late 1940s and 1950s for the transportation of people and equipment in conjunction with military and scientific activities, as well as in and around civilian settlements. Off-road vehicles continue to be used regularly for moving heavy seismic survey equipment. Seasonality is critical and...

Barents Willem

Although the name of Willem Barents is renowned, historians know little of his life and family. From his atlas Nieuwe Beschrijvinghe ende Caertboeck van de Middellandtsche Zee (New Description and Atlas of the Mediterranean Sea) published by Cornelis Claesz in 1595, historians know that Barents nurtured an interest in maps during his childhood. He shared this passion with his later teacher, the Dutch reformed preacher, and geographer Petrus Plancius (1552-1622). Plancius was interested in the...

Great Auk Pinguinus Impennis

Only 5-10 pairs of little auk breed in Iceland today ironically, they nest on Eldley Island, where the last pair of great auks was killed in June 1844. There are some 80 skins and 20 skeletons, about 75 eggs housed in collections around the world, and much of what we know about this species is recent reconstruction or mere speculation, with clues supplied by extant auks and penguins. The great auk was the largest representative of the family, weighing 4.5-7.3 kg. In appearance, they resembled...

Alutiit

Alutiit, or Sugpiat, are the indigenous people of Prince William Sound, the eastern Kenai Peninsula, Kodiak Island, and portions of the lower Alaska Peninsula. Russian colonizers called both the Unangan of the Aleutian Islands and the Alutiit Aleuts, thinking they were the same people as sea mammal hunters of Kamchatka who were called Aliutors. After almost 100 years of Russian rule, Alutiit called themselves Aleuts. Kodiak Island Alutiit are also called Koniag, derived from the term Kanaagin...

Floe Edge

The floe edge is a constantly moving and dynamic line that marks the end of fixed fast ice (ice that is anchored to the shore) and the start of the Arctic Ocean. The word floe probably comes from Norwegian, where flo means a flat layer. In English, a floe is defined as floating ice formed in a large sheet on the surface of a body of water. In the fall as the ocean freezes, the floe edge moves farther and farther out from land and may eventually completely disappear once the body of water is...

Eskers

An esker is an elongate sinuous ridge, of either simple or compound form, composed of glaciofluvial sediments and marking the former position of streams below (subglacial), within (englacial), or on the surface (supraglacial) of glaciers. Deposited in former icewalled channels, eskers are often the most prominent glaciofluvial landform in freshly deglaciated terrain. The routing of former meltwater channels in glaciers, and their association with ice-marginal configurations, is indicated by the...

Bylot Island

Bylot Island (73 N 80 W, Nunavut, Canada) was named after Robert Bylot, captain of the Discovery, the first sailor to describe this region with his pilot William Baffin in 1616, in search of the North West Passage. Not until 1818-1919, 200 years later, did two other European explorers, James Ross and Sir William Edward Parry, sail again along Bylot Island. The island covers an area of about 15,000 km2 in Baffin Bay, north of Baffin Island. Its ice-capped mountains, rising to 1951 m (Byam Martin...

Aleutian Range

The Aleutian Range is in southwestern Alaska, extending from about 54 N to 61 N and 153 W to 165 W. The portion of the range north of Iliamna Lake (59 N) is also called the Alaska-Aleutian Range. The Aleutian Islands are considered a continuation of the Aleutian Range, but the Aleutian Range proper extends only as far west as Unimak Island according to the Dictionary of Alaska Place Names. The geology consists of rounded east-trending ridges of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, locally intruded by...

Arctic Haze

Arctic haze is a seasonal atmospheric phenomenon affecting the Arctic, peaking in spring, that originates from pollution sources outside the Arctic. When the sun returns after the long polar night, layers of brownish haze are visible above the colorful horizon. Similar to the well-known air pollution phenomena in areas with process industries and large towns (smog), and the murky dust clouds (brown clouds) seen over large regions of tropical Asia, Arctic haze reduces visibility over polar...

Cornwall Island

Cornwall Island (2358 km2, 910 sq mi) is located in the Queen Elizabeth Islands (Sverdrup group) of the Canadian High Arctic Archipelago, Nunavut Territory. The landscape is similar to the surrounding islands, with gentle hills covered with sparse tundra vegetation. The interior of the island contains several plateaus rising to 250 m elevation. Soil cover is primarily composed of exposed sandstone and siltstone from the Mesozoic Sverdrup Basin group. Igneous rock has intruded to form diabase...

Demography And Population

Those who reside outside of the region often assume that the Arctic is an empty land that no one lives there. If a population component is recognized, then it tends to be written off as insignificant a few, widely scattered native groups who wander in nomadic fashion through a harsh, cold environment. The fact that there might be cities of several thousand people lying north of the 60th parallel usually escapes the attention of most observers. So does the fact that the Circumpolar North has a...

Settlements and Towns

Alaska is divided into municipalities or boroughs and not into counties as in the rest of the United States. In the 2000 census, Anchorage municipality had a popu lation of 260,283, making it by far the largest city in the state and accounting for nearly half the state's total population. The Fairbanks-North Star Borough had a population of 82,840 in 2000 and is the second largest urban region in the state. Other population concentrations are in Matanuska-Susitna Borough north of Anchorage with...

Aleut Language

The Aleut, or Unangan in their own language, traditionally inhabited the lower Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian archipelago, a 1300-mile-long volcanic island arc of almost entirely treeless tundra extending from the Alaska Peninsula west toward Kamchatka. As the southern edge of the Bering Land Bridge, the eastern Aleutian Islands formed the initial route to the colonization of the Americas. The ancestors to the Aleut occupied this region for at least 10,000 years, and for most of that period they...

Russia

Indigenous groups living in Arctic Russia include, besides the Saami, Nenets, Mansi, Khanty, Nganasan, Enets, Evenk, Dolgan, Even, Yukagir, Yakut, Chukchi, and Siberian Yupik. Several of these groups lived in close proximity to each other, had similar subsistence strategies and trading associations, and developed similar clothing traditions. Nenets, occupying lands east of the Saami, herded reindeer and, after Soviet collectivization, fished on commercial fishing brigades. Traditional Nenets...

WWF Arctic Programme httpwwwngo gridanowwfap

WWF's Arctic Programme began in 1992. In addition to conservation work, WWF staff also work interna tionally to highlight the impacts of climate change. The international climate change campaign is designed to raise public concern about the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, encourage policymakers to introduce effective measures, and form innovative partnerships with progressive businesses. The Campaign has published a series of studies on the impacts of climate change on coral reefs,...

Boothia Peninsula

The Boothia Peninsula, a component of the new Canadian territory of Nunavut, is a fingerlike projection of land extending northward from the Canadian mainland. It represents the northernmost tip of the North American mainland extending to a latitude of 71o58' N. It is connected to the mainland by the narrow Isthmus of Boothia. The narrow Bellot Strait separates the Boothia Peninsula from Somerset Island to the north. To the east, the Gulf of Boothia separates it from Baffin Island. To the...

Indigenous Education in Scandinavia

In Scandinavia, the Nordic Saami Institute was founded in 1974 as a research, educational, and service institution for the Saami populations of Norway, Finland, and Sweden. The following year the Saami Educational Council was established to advise the Norwegian Ministry of Education on questions relating to training and education for Saami. The Saami Educational Council presently initiates the development of framework curricula and subject syllabi, develops textbooks and teaching materials,...

Bears

The bears worldwide consist of eight species of the family Ursidae, of which three species are found in Arctic areas. The first bearlike ancestor was the small doglike carnivore Ursavus that was common in the Pliocene (5 to 2 million years ago). Similar in size to a racoon, this ancestral bear eventually gave rise to the modern bears and another branch that resulted in the now extinct giant short-faced bear (Arctodus simus). During the Pleistocene epoch or Ice Age (2 million to 10,000 years...

Charcot Jeanbaptiste

The French Arctic and Antarctic explorer Jean-Baptiste Charcot belonged to a family of physicians, although from an early age Charcot had decided to become a sea traveler or sailor. At the age of 25, he bought his first yacht, Courlis. During his earliest navigations, Charcot cruised the Shetland and Faroe islands, and also visited Jan Mayen Island in the Greenland Sea. These sailings marked the future interests and commitments of Charcot in the Polar Regions. In 1903, Charcot was planning to...

Northeastern Canada

Along the northeast coast of Canada, Arctic conditions extend southward to the central Grand Bank (46 N). This extension far to the south results from the Labrador Current, which transports cold water southward from Davis Strait, the Canadian Archipelago, and Hudson Bay over the plateau east of Labrador and Newfoundland. The median southerly extent of sea ice is on the northern Grand Bank at approximately 47 N and bottom water temperatures on the northern Grand Bank are below 0 C for...

Bering Strait

The Bering Strait is a relatively shallow and narrow strait, 55 miles (96 km) wide between the Chukchi Peninsula of extreme northeast Asia and the Seward Peninsula of northwest North America, connecting the Bering Sea northward arm of the Pacific Ocean with the southward Chukchi Sea of the Arctic Ocean. The strait was first sailed by the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648, but is better associated with the Danish navigator Vitus Bering. Bering entered the newly formed navy of the Russian...

Bathurst Mandate

The Bathurst Mandate (Pinasuaqtavut, translated as that which we've set out to do) is an eight-page document that sets out the Nunavut government's priorities for the first five years of its existence (1999-2004) and also includes a vision for Nunavut in the year 2020. The document was developed by the 19 elected members of the Nunavut Legislative Assembly and tabled at the Nunavut Legislative Assembly on October 21, 1999. The Bathurst Mandate outlines the social, political, and economic...

Biodiversity in the High and Mid Arctic

The High and Mid ecoclimate province of the Arctic is found in northernmost Canada, Greenland, on Svalbard (Norway), and in areas of the Russian Arctic such as Novaya Zemlya and the Taymyr Peninsula. The High and Mid Arctic (or Arctic and typical tundra in Eurasian terminology) are characterized by discontinuous vegetation cover and low biodiversity. Plant cover usually ranges between 15 and 75 , depending on the supply of soil moisture, local topography, and climatic conditions. Large areas in...

Education in Greenland

Under Greenland's 1979 Home Rule Act, the Greenlandic government assumed responsibility for education and culture, public health, housing, management of natural and renewable resources, transportation, public works, and environmental protection. Denmark retained responsibility for national defense and foreign relations. On January 1, 1980, the Home Rule government assumed control of primary school education, evening school classes, the Teacher Training College, the Social Pedagogue School, the...

Archbishop Innocent Ivan Veniaminov

Archbishop Innocent (Ivan Veniaminov) was born on August 26, 1797, of local lineage, in the village of Anga (Anginskoe) in the Irkutsk gubernia. He would become an important missionary of Alaska, Siberia, and the Far East, an ethnologist, and a linguist. He received the name Ioann at baptism as an infant, inherited his father's surname, and was known as Ioann (Ivan) Evseevich Popov in his youth. Enrolled in the Irkutsk Theological Seminary, he was gifted not only as a scholar but in mechanics,...

Cassiope Heaths

Cassiope heath is a circumpolar Arctic vegetation type predominated by Cassiope tetragona. Cassiope heaths are a widespread plant community occurring from the Subarctic to the High Arctic. C. tetragona (L.) D.Don (Arctic white heather, white Arctic bell heather, fire moss, four-angled Cassiope, Qijooktaik, Iksutit (Inuktitut), Issutit (Greenlandic)) is an evergreen, long-lived dwarf shrub of the Ericaceae family, which reaches 5-20 cm in height. It has four-ranked, dark green leaves with a deep...

Tides and Currents

Both diurnal and semidiurnal tides occur in the Bering Sea. Tidal amplitude at the Bering Sea coast varies from < 0.5 m along the eastern Chukotka Coast to 1-2 m along the Alaskan Coast, to > 2 m along Koryak and Kamchatka coasts, to > 5 m in Kuskokwim Bay and up to 8.5 m in Bristol Bay. On the Aleutian Islands the tidal magnitude is between 1.5 and 2.3 m. Owing to interaction with topography, tidal currents may amplify to significantly exceed the mean flow. For example, the mean flow...

Fiala Anthony

Anthony Fiala, an American journalist, photographer, and explorer, took the first moving pictures of the Arctic at the turn of the 20th century. Fiala was born in Jersey City, New Jersey, in 1869 and displayed abilities both as an artist and artisan, which led him to choose illustrated journalism as a career. He later joined the United States Army and served in the Spanish-American War of 1898-1900, rising to the rank of major. He was also correspondent for the Brooklyn Daily Eagle. In...

Fairbanks

Fairbanks is situated in the heart of Alaska, 370 miles (595 km) south of Prudhoe Bay, and 93 miles (150 km) south of the Arctic Circle. The city grew rapidly in the 20th century fueled by gold mining, military bases, and discovery of oil in Alaska's North Slope but until 1901, the Tanana and Yukon Valley area was known only to the native Athapaskans. On August 26, 1901, the paddleboat Lavelle Young, captained by Charles W. Adams, bumped the south bank of the Chena River at a place that would...

Power of the

The sun is the major source of energy that powers the Earth. Although the sun's rays are relatively weak in the Arctic as they pass through the atmosphere at a more oblique angle than to the south, once the Arctic summer has started, there are 24 h of daylight per day. The sun's rays are absorbed by plants (from algae in the sea to the shrubs and krummholz of the treeline) and captured in carbohydrate molecules (sugars) in plants through the process of photosynthesis. The rates of...

Factors Affecting Climate

The variation of received solar intensity with latitude drives a simple air movement where air rises at the equator and sinks at the poles (Hadley cell), causing the polar high-pressure areas of cold, sinking air that inhibits precipitation. A second external factor affecting polar climate is the extreme seasonal variation in incoming solar radiation over the course of a year, from near-continuous insolation in summer to months of almost total darkness in winter. As a result, temperatures...

Religion and Folklore

Although by the 20th century Dolgans were considered to have all converted to Orthodox Christianity, following Christian rituals and practices, they retained many traditional beliefs (animism, deification of forces of nature). Stones of unusual forms, trees, and other natural objects were revered as sacred objects, considered to be spirit protectors of hunting and fishing. Dolgan deities and spirits were divided, as were those of the Yakuts, into three categories itchi unbodied invisible...

Environmental Problems

Phenomena that significantly interfere with the structure and function of ecosystems over a major portion of the lifetime of the longest-lived organisms can generally be classed as environmental problems. Widespread concern regarding the prospect of large-scale resource development in the Arctic was first expressed over 30 years ago in the early to mid-1970s. Human activities and concomitant environmental problems are presently more extensive within the tundra biome than in the past. Large...

British Arctic Expedition 18751876

The British Arctic Expedition, under the auspices of the Royal Navy, explored Ellesmere Island, Greenland, setting a farthest north record. For nearly a quarter century after the final expedition mounted in 1852 in search of Sir John Franklin and his expedition, the British government steadfastly refused to support any scientific, geographic, or military expeditions into the polar regions. The combined efforts of the Royal Society and the Royal Geographical Society in London in the early 1870s...

Dalton Highway

The Dalton Highway provides the only road access to the US Arctic, across the only bridge over the Yukon River in Alaska. It connects the Elliott Highway north of Fairbanks with Deadhorse, the Prudhoe Bay service center, 414 miles to the north. The state of Alaska owns the land from the Elliott Highway to the Yukon River on the southern end and the extreme northern end on the Arctic Coastal Plain. The central portion of the corridor containing the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and the highway is...

Contemporary Influences and Clothing

Clothing in all Arctic groups was influenced by contact with Europeans and other indigenous groups. The introduction of manufactured materials such as fabric, thread, and beads, and new tools such as metal needles and sewing machines affected indigenous clothing, inspiring creative syntheses of traditional and introduced materials and techniques. Another influence was the social pressure to conform to the standards of colonizing newcomers. Contact with Europeans and others who formed the...

Fur Trade

The history of the fur trade, well documented back to the 9th century, is a history of the colonization of the North and the struggle of circumpolar peoples to reconcile market economies with a traditional way of life. The pursuit of fur brought traders into the European North and later to the far frontiers of Russia in the east and west to North America. Fur was often the first commodity that brought northern peoples into the network of European contact and trade, with various degrees of...

Cod

Cod are fish of the genus Gadus (family Gadidae, order Gadiformes, class Osteichthyes). The genus Gadus includes from one to five species, depending on which are counted as full species. The type species of the genus is Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. Other species are the Pacific cod, G. macrocephalus, and the Greenland cod, G. ogac, earlier thought to be subspecies of the Atlantic cod but recognized currently as full species. Baltic cod and White Sea cod are regarded as subspecies of the Atlantic...

Anadyr

Anadyr is the capital of the Chukchi Autonomous Okrug in the Russian Far East and of the district of Anadyr (Anadyrskii Raion, one of the eight districts of Chukotka). Anadyr is also the name of a 1150 km long river, a plain, a plateau, a bay of the Bering Sea, and a mountain range in the region. The port city of Anadyr is located at 64 47' N and 177 34' E at the estuary of the river Anadyr, which flows into the Bering Sea. Anadyr is located in a tundra area and is subject to strong winds...

Evenki Autonomous Okrug

The Evenki Autonomous Okrug, or Evenkia, is one of nine autonomous national areas or okrugs in the Russian Federation. It was established on December 30,1930 as a national okrug and was named after the indigenous Evenki people. It is part of Krasnoyarsk Kray. The Evenki Autonomous Okrug is situated in eastern Siberia. It borders with the Taymyr Autonomous Okrug in the north, with Sakha (Yakutia) Republic and Location and main towns and rivers in the Evenki Autonomous Okrug. Location and main...

Barrow Sir John

Although Sir John Barrow only made one brief trip to the Arctic himself, sailing to Svalbard for a summer on board a whaler during his teenage years, his name is inextricably linked with the exploration of the Arctic through his role as the prime figure in the mapping of Arctic Canada that took place in the first half of the 19 th century. Coming from humble origins in rural north Lancashire, Barrow was a bright child who impressed his teachers in mastering Latin and mathematics, and made his...

Davis John

The English merchant seaman and explorer John Davis was given command of three expeditions to search for the elusive North West Passage partly as a result of his friendship with Adrian and Humphrey Gilbert and their half-brother Sir Walter Raleigh. He was also helped by the patronage of Dr. John Dee, and the sponsorship of William Sanderson and other London and West Country merchants. They secured permission from the Russia Company to seek out a new, northern route, and obtained the approval of...

Alaska Native Science Commission

In spring 1993, Anchorage, Alaska, hosted a conference on contamination of the Arctic, which opened with a keynote address by United States Senator (now Governor) Frank Murkowski, entitled The Environmental Legacy of the Cold War. In the days that followed, delegates listened to accounts of Arctic lands and peoples used as testing ground for Cold War-related scientific research. A number of revelations about research activities undertaken during the 1950s that only became public knowledge in...