Finnbogadottir VigdiS

In 1980, Vigdis Finnbogadottir made history when she was elected president of Iceland, serving as president until 1996. Although her margin of victory was small (only 33.8 , with the nearest of three rivals getting 32.2 ), it was sufficient to make her the world's first female head of state elected by popular suffrage. As the powers of the president of Iceland are largely symbolic and ceremonial, the office did not provide her with much executive power. As an icon for women, her influence...

Arctic Athabascan Council

The Arctic Athabascan Council is an international treaty organization established to foster a greater understanding of the heritage of the Athapaskan peoples of the Arctic and Subarctic North America and to represent the interests of Athapaskan First Nation governments in the Arctic Council. Seven Athapaskan leaders from Alaska, Yukon, and the Northwest Territories signed the Council treaty in June 2000. Signatures included Chief Gary Harrison from Chickaloon Village Traditional Council, Chief...

Alaska Highway

The first effort to build an overland route toward Alaska came in 1897, when the Northwest Mounted Police completed a route survey from Dawson Creek to Fort Selkirk on the Yukon River. The survey party eventually traversed the 2600 km to Fort Selkirk, and reported that an overland route into the Yukon Territory from northern British Columbia was not feasible. The Klondike Gold Rush of 1898 presented Canada with the dilemma of maintaining sovereignty over the Yukon. To counter the construction...

Council For Yukon First Nations Cyfn

Originally known as the Council for Yukon Indians, the Council for Yukon First Nations (CYFN) was established to negotiate native land claims and self-government with the government of Canada. The Council continues to serve as a public service agency for 11 of 14 First Nations of the Yukon Territory. Concerted efforts by Yukon First Nations to address public policy concerns began in 1972, when the Yukon Native Brotherhood submitted a petition to the Canadian government protesting the effects of...

Brun Eske

In 1932, Eske Brun first came to Greenland from Denmark, where he worked in Godhavn (Qeqertarsuaq) as interim Governor of North Greenland (Landsfoged). He left again in 1933 and returned to his job in the Ministry. In the years 1925-1950, all Greenlandic affairs were administered by the Greenland Administration (Gr0nlandsstyrelsen). Brun was attached to this organization from 1934 when he was offered a job as principal. The same year he returned to Greenland, this time to Godthab (Nuuk) as...

Recent Times

In 1927, Ilimpiysky, Baikitsky, and Tungus-Chunsky National Districts united to form the Evenk National District (later the Evenki Autonomous Okrug). In the 1930s, reindeer-breeding collectives were formed, settled villages were built, and agriculture was introduced. In the 1950s, integration of collective farms took place. In 1928-1929, an alphabet on the basis of the Latin script, and since 1937 on the basis of the Russian script, was created. In 1931, the first book in the Evenki language...

History

Archaeological evidence suggests a human presence on the Chukotka peninsula before the disappearance of the Bering land bridge, which subsided 10,000 years ago, with finds dating to 70,000-50,000 BC. However, remains of the first known coastal marine mammal hunting cultures date to roughly 1400 BC. Inland Chukchi, Yukagir, Koryak, and Even moved to reindeer husbandry from subsistence hunting slightly later, possibly in the first or second centuries AD (Dikov, 1989). Semyon Dezhnev, a Cossack...

Cook Frederick

Frederick Cook, the American polar explorer, volunteered for Robert Peary's North Greenland Arctic expedition shortly after passing his medical exams in1889. Peary offered Cook a position as expedition surgeon and the expedition sailed in June 1891, establishing a base on the western coast of Greenland near Whale Sound. Cook impressed Peary with his stamina, calm temperament, and positive attitude. Confident of Cook's abilities as a leader and explorer, Peary placed Cook in charge of his base...

Beluga White Whale

The beluga or white whale (Delphinapterus leucus), known as qilalugaq in Greenlandic and Inuktitut, puugzaq in Siberian Yupik, and sisuaq in Inupiat, is a mid-sized toothed whale (odontocete). The whale is white as an adult, and beluga is derived from the Russian word for white. Males are considerably larger than females, the former reaching lengths of 5 m and weights of 900 kg. Females reach a maximum of 4 m and 600 kg. White whales lack a dorsal fin, but they have a prominent dorsal ridge...

The Productivity Paradox

How did apparently sparse vegetation support such a wide variety of large grazing mammals This question is at the heart of the debate about the steppe-tundra. There are several possible explanations, as follows (1) The steppe-tundra was a richer environment than was previously thought. Some researchers who study fossil pollen argue that the steppetundra vegetation was short, sparse, and gener ally insufficient to support large herds of grazing mammals. They believe that the fossil bones found...

Egede Ingmar

In 1975, Ingmar Egede was appointed Rector of the Greenland Teachers' College, Ilinniarfissuaq, in Nuuk. Egede was the first Greenlander to hold this appointment, a position he held until 1988. Egede was then appointed Advisor to the Greenland Minister of Culture and Education from 1988 to 1991. In 2001, Egede was appointed to the first Board of Governors of the University of the Arctic. In addition to his career in education, Egede was active across a wide range of other social, cultural, and...

Ethnohistory in the North of North America

In North America, ethnographic research on northern indigenous peoples has long remained characterized by a lack of interest in historical change. Until the 1950s, most researchers still aimed primarily at reconstructing pre-Columbian states of affairs. Changes consecutive to contact with Europeans were evident to eyewitnesses, and abundantly documented in historical sources, but they were seen as evidence of cultural disintegration, which should be disregarded in ethnographic descriptions....

Cooperatives

Arctic aboriginal peoples relied upon spontaneous cooperation within families and bands for survival, whether it was in jointly fishing the mouth of a river or hunting seals on an ice pack. To many observers outside of the Arctic, this natural co-operative tendency suggested that Arctic peoples tended embrace formal co-operative enterprises in their economic and social development as if by design. The extent to which such observations were correct remains unclear, although the concept does make...

Bourque James W

Bourque was born in northern Alberta, Canada, to a Ukrainian mother and a Cree father. By the time he died in 1996, Bourque had profoundly affected the nature and practice of renewable resource management in the Northwest Territories. Bourque grew up trapping and hunting, then became one of the first aboriginal park wardens in Wood Buffalo National Park in the Northwest Territories (1955-1963), and then a wildlife officer with the territorial government, working in several communities...

Crantz David

The German David Crantz was a Moravian teacher, missionary, secretary, historian, and author of several renowned books, among them Historie von Gr nland (The History of Greenland), based on his 14-month stay in Greenland. Crantz began to study theology at the University in Halle in 1738. While still a student he joined the Moravians and attended a seminary in Herrnhaag in Oberhessen in 1740. A year later Crantz was among the inner circle around Count Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf (1700-1760)...

Copse

Copse is a word rarely used in the context of Arctic environments. In the Greenlandic context, copse is used to describe the vegetation of bushes less than 3 m high consisting mostly of Salix glauca (willow), Alnus crispa (alder), and Betula pubescens (birch). A survey of floras and scientific publications identifies the word on only one occasion The Flora of Greenland by Bocher et al. (1968) uses copse in the English edition as a translation of the Danish Krat. Generally, copse (or sometimes...

Common Concerns and Shared Goals

Most of the residents of the eastern Arctic of Canada (Nunavut), Northern Qu bec (Nunavik), Greenland, the Saami districts of Scandinavia and the villages of Alaska, the Yukon, and the Northwest Territories are indigenous peoples. The peoples of the Arctic face opportunities and problems that transcend national boundaries. Changing lifestyles, cultural differences from dominant southern populations, and the challenge of preserving traditional ways while developing local economies and employment...

Future Projects

The WCRP Climate and Cryosphere (CliC) project, approved in March 2000, will continue any unfinished elements of ACSYS when that project concludes in 2003, but it has a global focus on the climatic role of the cryosphere. Accordingly, Arctic land ice, frozen ground, and snow cover will receive attention, as well as Arctic sea ice. Major climatic concerns are the state of the Arctic sea ice in the mid-21 st century, the parametrization of the cryosphere in climatic and hydrologic models, the...

Dry Tundra

Dry tundra is the common term for a wide range of tundra habitats from rather flat areas with very stony soil, and low, usually sparse vascular plants to rocky habitats on exposed alpine summits and ridges, characterized by low mat and cushion plants and an abundance of bare rocks. Widely used synonyms of dry tundra are ridge tundra, fell-field from the Danish field-mark or rock desert, and blockfield or the German term Felsenmeer (sea of rocks). The common environmental features of dry tundra...

Denmark Strait

Denmark Strait is in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean between Iceland and Greenland near 67o N and 27o W. It is about 600 km (370 miles) long and, at its narrowest, about 300 km (185 miles) wide. Continental shelves less than 200 m deep extend 100 km out from the coast of Iceland but less than 20 km from Greenland. The sill depth of the strait is approximately 600 m. Denmark Strait carries the primary outflow of water from the Arctic Ocean in the cold, southward-flowing East Greenland Current....

Bathurst Island

Located in the center of Canada's High Arctic, Bathurst Island has an area of about 15,500 km2. With an irregular coastline and several long inlets reaching inland, no part of the island is more than 40 km from the sea. Bathurst Island is of low relief with few mountain ranges. Several peaks reach 300 m in the north, but much of the central part is below 100 m. The highest hills in the southern half are of volcanic origin and reach a height of 335 m. The geological structure is mainly...

Current Atmospheric Temperature Trends

In the following, we will concentrate on the primary, though by far not the only, climate parameter of importance surface temperature. Direct observations, which will be central to our discussion here, date back to the 1860s, that is, the dawn of the so-called industrialized revolution. It was at this time that humans first started to expand their sphere of activity, mainly through the extensive use of natural resources. Among them were fossil fuels (oil, gas, and coal) that were needed to...

International Biological Programme IBP 19641974

The International Biological Programme (IBP) was started in 1964 and it aimed to encourage collaboration between biologists representing different fields. This was probably the first program that related biodiversity to ecosystem function. Within IBP, a Biome program was drawn up at a meeting held in Poland in 1966. At this meeting it was agreed that there should be major studies on different types of ecosystems. These ecosystems were first described as habitat groups, but soon the word biome...

Off Road Vehicle

One of the most widespread forms of disturbance throughout the circumpolar Arctic is that caused by tracked vehicles operating off-road. Such vehicles, essentially tanks, first appeared in the Arctic in the late 1940s and 1950s for the transportation of people and equipment in conjunction with military and scientific activities, as well as in and around civilian settlements. Off-road vehicles continue to be used regularly for moving heavy seismic survey equipment. Seasonality is critical and...

Barents Willem

Although the name of Willem Barents is renowned, historians know little of his life and family. From his atlas Nieuwe Beschrijvinghe ende Caertboeck van de Middellandtsche Zee (New Description and Atlas of the Mediterranean Sea) published by Cornelis Claesz in 1595, historians know that Barents nurtured an interest in maps during his childhood. He shared this passion with his later teacher, the Dutch reformed preacher, and geographer Petrus Plancius (1552-1622). Plancius was interested in the...

Great Auk Pinguinus Impennis

Only 5-10 pairs of little auk breed in Iceland today ironically, they nest on Eldley Island, where the last pair of great auks was killed in June 1844. There are some 80 skins and 20 skeletons, about 75 eggs housed in collections around the world, and much of what we know about this species is recent reconstruction or mere speculation, with clues supplied by extant auks and penguins. The great auk was the largest representative of the family, weighing 4.5-7.3 kg. In appearance, they resembled...

Alutiit

Alutiit, or Sugpiat, are the indigenous people of Prince William Sound, the eastern Kenai Peninsula, Kodiak Island, and portions of the lower Alaska Peninsula. Russian colonizers called both the Unangan of the Aleutian Islands and the Alutiit Aleuts, thinking they were the same people as sea mammal hunters of Kamchatka who were called Aliutors. After almost 100 years of Russian rule, Alutiit called themselves Aleuts. Kodiak Island Alutiit are also called Koniag, derived from the term Kanaagin...

Floe Edge

The floe edge is a constantly moving and dynamic line that marks the end of fixed fast ice (ice that is anchored to the shore) and the start of the Arctic Ocean. The word floe probably comes from Norwegian, where flo means a flat layer. In English, a floe is defined as floating ice formed in a large sheet on the surface of a body of water. In the fall as the ocean freezes, the floe edge moves farther and farther out from land and may eventually completely disappear once the body of water is...

Eskers

An esker is an elongate sinuous ridge, of either simple or compound form, composed of glaciofluvial sediments and marking the former position of streams below (subglacial), within (englacial), or on the surface (supraglacial) of glaciers. Deposited in former icewalled channels, eskers are often the most prominent glaciofluvial landform in freshly deglaciated terrain. The routing of former meltwater channels in glaciers, and their association with ice-marginal configurations, is indicated by the...

Bylot Island

Bylot Island (73 N 80 W, Nunavut, Canada) was named after Robert Bylot, captain of the Discovery, the first sailor to describe this region with his pilot William Baffin in 1616, in search of the North West Passage. Not until 1818-1919, 200 years later, did two other European explorers, James Ross and Sir William Edward Parry, sail again along Bylot Island. The island covers an area of about 15,000 km2 in Baffin Bay, north of Baffin Island. Its ice-capped mountains, rising to 1951 m (Byam Martin...

Aleutian Range

The Aleutian Range is in southwestern Alaska, extending from about 54 N to 61 N and 153 W to 165 W. The portion of the range north of Iliamna Lake (59 N) is also called the Alaska-Aleutian Range. The Aleutian Islands are considered a continuation of the Aleutian Range, but the Aleutian Range proper extends only as far west as Unimak Island according to the Dictionary of Alaska Place Names. The geology consists of rounded east-trending ridges of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, locally intruded by...

Arctic Haze

Arctic haze is a seasonal atmospheric phenomenon affecting the Arctic, peaking in spring, that originates from pollution sources outside the Arctic. When the sun returns after the long polar night, layers of brownish haze are visible above the colorful horizon. Similar to the well-known air pollution phenomena in areas with process industries and large towns (smog), and the murky dust clouds (brown clouds) seen over large regions of tropical Asia, Arctic haze reduces visibility over polar...

Society and Social Structure

Although family groups remained the primary economic and social unit, tribal and ancestral hunting grounds became corrupted as different families changed their migration patterns, for example, to reach trading posts or remaining in one area due to smaller herds. Land use according to tribal affiliation was replaced with territorial groupings. By the 19th century, Evenk nomad camps, as a rule, consisted of people of several kins and tribes. But many customs and traditions of the earlier tribal...

Cornwall Island

Cornwall Island (2358 km2, 910 sq mi) is located in the Queen Elizabeth Islands (Sverdrup group) of the Canadian High Arctic Archipelago, Nunavut Territory. The landscape is similar to the surrounding islands, with gentle hills covered with sparse tundra vegetation. The interior of the island contains several plateaus rising to 250 m elevation. Soil cover is primarily composed of exposed sandstone and siltstone from the Mesozoic Sverdrup Basin group. Igneous rock has intruded to form diabase...

Demography And Population

Those who reside outside of the region often assume that the Arctic is an empty land that no one lives there. If a population component is recognized, then it tends to be written off as insignificant a few, widely scattered native groups who wander in nomadic fashion through a harsh, cold environment. The fact that there might be cities of several thousand people lying north of the 60th parallel usually escapes the attention of most observers. So does the fact that the Circumpolar North has a...

Settlements and Towns

Alaska is divided into municipalities or boroughs and not into counties as in the rest of the United States. In the 2000 census, Anchorage municipality had a popu lation of 260,283, making it by far the largest city in the state and accounting for nearly half the state's total population. The Fairbanks-North Star Borough had a population of 82,840 in 2000 and is the second largest urban region in the state. Other population concentrations are in Matanuska-Susitna Borough north of Anchorage with...

Aleut

The Aleut, or Unangan in their own language, traditionally inhabited the lower Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian archipelago, a 1300-mile-long volcanic island arc of almost entirely treeless tundra extending from the Alaska Peninsula west toward Kamchatka. As the southern edge of the Bering Land Bridge, the eastern Aleutian Islands formed the initial route to the colonization of the Americas. The ancestors to the Aleut occupied this region for at least 10,000 years, and for most of that period they...

Russia

Indigenous groups living in Arctic Russia include, besides the Saami, Nenets, Mansi, Khanty, Nganasan, Enets, Evenk, Dolgan, Even, Yukagir, Yakut, Chukchi, and Siberian Yupik. Several of these groups lived in close proximity to each other, had similar subsistence strategies and trading associations, and developed similar clothing traditions. Nenets, occupying lands east of the Saami, herded reindeer and, after Soviet collectivization, fished on commercial fishing brigades. Traditional Nenets...

WWF Arctic Programme httpwwwngo gridanowwfap

WWF's Arctic Programme began in 1992. In addition to conservation work, WWF staff also work interna tionally to highlight the impacts of climate change. The international climate change campaign is designed to raise public concern about the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, encourage policymakers to introduce effective measures, and form innovative partnerships with progressive businesses. The Campaign has published a series of studies on the impacts of climate change on coral reefs,...

Boothia Peninsula

The Boothia Peninsula, a component of the new Canadian territory of Nunavut, is a fingerlike projection of land extending northward from the Canadian mainland. It represents the northernmost tip of the North American mainland extending to a latitude of 71o58' N. It is connected to the mainland by the narrow Isthmus of Boothia. The narrow Bellot Strait separates the Boothia Peninsula from Somerset Island to the north. To the east, the Gulf of Boothia separates it from Baffin Island. To the...

Indigenous Education in Scandinavia

In Scandinavia, the Nordic Saami Institute was founded in 1974 as a research, educational, and service institution for the Saami populations of Norway, Finland, and Sweden. The following year the Saami Educational Council was established to advise the Norwegian Ministry of Education on questions relating to training and education for Saami. The Saami Educational Council presently initiates the development of framework curricula and subject syllabi, develops textbooks and teaching materials,...

Bears

The bears worldwide consist of eight species of the family Ursidae, of which three species are found in Arctic areas. The first bearlike ancestor was the small doglike carnivore Ursavus that was common in the Pliocene (5 to 2 million years ago). Similar in size to a racoon, this ancestral bear eventually gave rise to the modern bears and another branch that resulted in the now extinct giant short-faced bear (Arctodus simus). During the Pleistocene epoch or Ice Age (2 million to 10,000 years...

Charcot Jeanbaptiste

The French Arctic and Antarctic explorer Jean-Baptiste Charcot belonged to a family of physicians, although from an early age Charcot had decided to become a sea traveler or sailor. At the age of 25, he bought his first yacht, Courlis. During his earliest navigations, Charcot cruised the Shetland and Faroe islands, and also visited Jan Mayen Island in the Greenland Sea. These sailings marked the future interests and commitments of Charcot in the Polar Regions. In 1903, Charcot was planning to...

Northeastern Canada

Along the northeast coast of Canada, Arctic conditions extend southward to the central Grand Bank (46 N). This extension far to the south results from the Labrador Current, which transports cold water southward from Davis Strait, the Canadian Archipelago, and Hudson Bay over the plateau east of Labrador and Newfoundland. The median southerly extent of sea ice is on the northern Grand Bank at approximately 47 N and bottom water temperatures on the northern Grand Bank are below 0 C for...

Bering Strait

The Bering Strait is a relatively shallow and narrow strait, 55 miles (96 km) wide between the Chukchi Peninsula of extreme northeast Asia and the Seward Peninsula of northwest North America, connecting the Bering Sea northward arm of the Pacific Ocean with the southward Chukchi Sea of the Arctic Ocean. The strait was first sailed by the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648, but is better associated with the Danish navigator Vitus Bering. Bering entered the newly formed navy of the Russian...

Bathurst Mandate

The Bathurst Mandate (Pinasuaqtavut, translated as that which we've set out to do) is an eight-page document that sets out the Nunavut government's priorities for the first five years of its existence (1999-2004) and also includes a vision for Nunavut in the year 2020. The document was developed by the 19 elected members of the Nunavut Legislative Assembly and tabled at the Nunavut Legislative Assembly on October 21, 1999. The Bathurst Mandate outlines the social, political, and economic...

Biodiversity in the High and Mid Arctic

The High and Mid ecoclimate province of the Arctic is found in northernmost Canada, Greenland, on Svalbard (Norway), and in areas of the Russian Arctic such as Novaya Zemlya and the Taymyr Peninsula. The High and Mid Arctic (or Arctic and typical tundra in Eurasian terminology) are characterized by discontinuous vegetation cover and low biodiversity. Plant cover usually ranges between 15 and 75 , depending on the supply of soil moisture, local topography, and climatic conditions. Large areas in...

Education in Greenland

Under Greenland's 1979 Home Rule Act, the Greenlandic government assumed responsibility for education and culture, public health, housing, management of natural and renewable resources, transportation, public works, and environmental protection. Denmark retained responsibility for national defense and foreign relations. On January 1, 1980, the Home Rule government assumed control of primary school education, evening school classes, the Teacher Training College, the Social Pedagogue School, the...

Archbishop Innocent Ivan Veniaminov

Archbishop Innocent (Ivan Veniaminov) was born on August 26, 1797, of local lineage, in the village of Anga (Anginskoe) in the Irkutsk gubernia. He would become an important missionary of Alaska, Siberia, and the Far East, an ethnologist, and a linguist. He received the name Ioann at baptism as an infant, inherited his father's surname, and was known as Ioann (Ivan) Evseevich Popov in his youth. Enrolled in the Irkutsk Theological Seminary, he was gifted not only as a scholar but in mechanics,...

Cassiope Heaths

Cassiope heath is a circumpolar Arctic vegetation type predominated by Cassiope tetragona. Cassiope heaths are a widespread plant community occurring from the Subarctic to the High Arctic. C. tetragona (L.) D.Don (Arctic white heather, white Arctic bell heather, fire moss, four-angled Cassiope, Qijooktaik, Iksutit (Inuktitut), Issutit (Greenlandic)) is an evergreen, long-lived dwarf shrub of the Ericaceae family, which reaches 5-20 cm in height. It has four-ranked, dark green leaves with a deep...

Tides and Currents

Both diurnal and semidiurnal tides occur in the Bering Sea. Tidal amplitude at the Bering Sea coast varies from < 0.5 m along the eastern Chukotka Coast to 1-2 m along the Alaskan Coast, to > 2 m along Koryak and Kamchatka coasts, to > 5 m in Kuskokwim Bay and up to 8.5 m in Bristol Bay. On the Aleutian Islands the tidal magnitude is between 1.5 and 2.3 m. Owing to interaction with topography, tidal currents may amplify to significantly exceed the mean flow. For example, the mean flow...

Fiala Anthony

Anthony Fiala, an American journalist, photographer, and explorer, took the first moving pictures of the Arctic at the turn of the 20th century. Fiala was born in Jersey City, New Jersey, in 1869 and displayed abilities both as an artist and artisan, which led him to choose illustrated journalism as a career. He later joined the United States Army and served in the Spanish-American War of 1898-1900, rising to the rank of major. He was also correspondent for the Brooklyn Daily Eagle. In...

Fairbanks

Fairbanks is situated in the heart of Alaska, 370 miles (595 km) south of Prudhoe Bay, and 93 miles (150 km) south of the Arctic Circle. The city grew rapidly in the 20th century fueled by gold mining, military bases, and discovery of oil in Alaska's North Slope but until 1901, the Tanana and Yukon Valley area was known only to the native Athapaskans. On August 26, 1901, the paddleboat Lavelle Young, captained by Charles W. Adams, bumped the south bank of the Chena River at a place that would...

Power of the

The sun is the major source of energy that powers the Earth. Although the sun's rays are relatively weak in the Arctic as they pass through the atmosphere at a more oblique angle than to the south, once the Arctic summer has started, there are 24 h of daylight per day. The sun's rays are absorbed by plants (from algae in the sea to the shrubs and krummholz of the treeline) and captured in carbohydrate molecules (sugars) in plants through the process of photosynthesis. The rates of...

Factors Affecting Climate

The variation of received solar intensity with latitude drives a simple air movement where air rises at the equator and sinks at the poles (Hadley cell), causing the polar high-pressure areas of cold, sinking air that inhibits precipitation. A second external factor affecting polar climate is the extreme seasonal variation in incoming solar radiation over the course of a year, from near-continuous insolation in summer to months of almost total darkness in winter. As a result, temperatures...

Religion and Folklore

Although by the 20th century Dolgans were considered to have all converted to Orthodox Christianity, following Christian rituals and practices, they retained many traditional beliefs (animism, deification of forces of nature). Stones of unusual forms, trees, and other natural objects were revered as sacred objects, considered to be spirit protectors of hunting and fishing. Dolgan deities and spirits were divided, as were those of the Yakuts, into three categories itchi unbodied invisible...

Arctic Finland

Arctic Finland includes a small proportion of both the Finnish population and the Finnish economy. Including Arctic territory has been used by both Finland and Sweden to attain specific EU advantages in relation to Arctic agriculture and regional policy. Forestry is the dominating industry. Arctic tourism, especially in relation to the Santa Claus industry, has been an important element in economic development. The small indigenous population, the Saami, living by reindeer herding, have no...

Environmental Problems

Phenomena that significantly interfere with the structure and function of ecosystems over a major portion of the lifetime of the longest-lived organisms can generally be classed as environmental problems. Widespread concern regarding the prospect of large-scale resource development in the Arctic was first expressed over 30 years ago in the early to mid-1970s. Human activities and concomitant environmental problems are presently more extensive within the tundra biome than in the past. Large...

British Arctic Expedition 18751876

The British Arctic Expedition, under the auspices of the Royal Navy, explored Ellesmere Island, Greenland, setting a farthest north record. For nearly a quarter century after the final expedition mounted in 1852 in search of Sir John Franklin and his expedition, the British government steadfastly refused to support any scientific, geographic, or military expeditions into the polar regions. The combined efforts of the Royal Society and the Royal Geographical Society in London in the early 1870s...

Dalton Highway

The Dalton Highway provides the only road access to the US Arctic, across the only bridge over the Yukon River in Alaska. It connects the Elliott Highway north of Fairbanks with Deadhorse, the Prudhoe Bay service center, 414 miles to the north. The state of Alaska owns the land from the Elliott Highway to the Yukon River on the southern end and the extreme northern end on the Arctic Coastal Plain. The central portion of the corridor containing the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and the highway is...

Contemporary Influences and Clothing

Clothing in all Arctic groups was influenced by contact with Europeans and other indigenous groups. The introduction of manufactured materials such as fabric, thread, and beads, and new tools such as metal needles and sewing machines affected indigenous clothing, inspiring creative syntheses of traditional and introduced materials and techniques. Another influence was the social pressure to conform to the standards of colonizing newcomers. Contact with Europeans and others who formed the...

Cod

Cod are fish of the genus Gadus (family Gadidae, order Gadiformes, class Osteichthyes). The genus Gadus includes from one to five species, depending on which are counted as full species. The type species of the genus is Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. Other species are the Pacific cod, G. macrocephalus, and the Greenland cod, G. ogac, earlier thought to be subspecies of the Atlantic cod but recognized currently as full species. Baltic cod and White Sea cod are regarded as subspecies of the Atlantic...

Anadyr

Anadyr is the capital of the Chukchi Autonomous Okrug in the Russian Far East and of the district of Anadyr (Anadyrskii Raion, one of the eight districts of Chukotka). Anadyr is also the name of a 1150 km long river, a plain, a plateau, a bay of the Bering Sea, and a mountain range in the region. The port city of Anadyr is located at 64 47' N and 177 34' E at the estuary of the river Anadyr, which flows into the Bering Sea. Anadyr is located in a tundra area and is subject to strong winds...

Evenki Autonomous Okrug

The Evenki Autonomous Okrug, or Evenkia, is one of nine autonomous national areas or okrugs in the Russian Federation. It was established on December 30,1930 as a national okrug and was named after the indigenous Evenki people. It is part of Krasnoyarsk Kray. The Evenki Autonomous Okrug is situated in eastern Siberia. It borders with the Taymyr Autonomous Okrug in the north, with Sakha (Yakutia) Republic and Location and main towns and rivers in the Evenki Autonomous Okrug. Location and main...

Barrow Sir John

Although Sir John Barrow only made one brief trip to the Arctic himself, sailing to Svalbard for a summer on board a whaler during his teenage years, his name is inextricably linked with the exploration of the Arctic through his role as the prime figure in the mapping of Arctic Canada that took place in the first half of the 19 th century. Coming from humble origins in rural north Lancashire, Barrow was a bright child who impressed his teachers in mastering Latin and mathematics, and made his...

Davis John

The English merchant seaman and explorer John Davis was given command of three expeditions to search for the elusive North West Passage partly as a result of his friendship with Adrian and Humphrey Gilbert and their half-brother Sir Walter Raleigh. He was also helped by the patronage of Dr. John Dee, and the sponsorship of William Sanderson and other London and West Country merchants. They secured permission from the Russia Company to seek out a new, northern route, and obtained the approval of...

Alaska Native Science Commission

In spring 1993, Anchorage, Alaska, hosted a conference on contamination of the Arctic, which opened with a keynote address by United States Senator (now Governor) Frank Murkowski, entitled The Environmental Legacy of the Cold War. In the days that followed, delegates listened to accounts of Arctic lands and peoples used as testing ground for Cold War-related scientific research. A number of revelations about research activities undertaken during the 1950s that only became public knowledge in...

The Roman Alphabet

Christianity brought the Roman alphabet to Scandinavia. In the beginning, this alphabet was used for writing Latin, the language of the Roman Catholic Church. In Norway, however, the vernacular (Old Norse) was used in writing prior to 1100, and this practice was taken up in Iceland shortly afterwards. The reason for this was that Norway and Iceland received Christianity from England and Ireland, where the vernaculars (Anglo-Saxon and Gaelic) were habitually used in writing. In Sweden and...

Biography

Nikolay Ivanovich Daurkin was born supposedly in 1734, receiving the name Tangitan. His father Omshat was Koryak and his mother was Chukchi, a relative of the main Chukchi toyon (leader) Tention. In 1744, during one of the aggressive marches of the voivode (warrior leader) Dmitryi Pavlutskyi in Chukotka, Tangitan and his parents were taken prisoner. His father managed to escape, but his mother was executed. The ten-year-old Tangitan was placed in service for D. Pavlutskyi first in Anadyr...

Daurkin Nikolay

In 1762, the Chukchi polar explorer Nikolay Daurkin was sent to Anadyr ostrog (fort) as a common soldier and as a translator of the Chukchi language. In the summer of 1763, he was among 240 Russian soldiers on 13 ships who marched to the Chukchi's land. During this march Daurkin escaped to his Chukchi relatives. In August 1764, he returned to the Russians of his own free will, bringing some of his relatives. However, he was arrested and deported to Yakutsk, and endured cruel punishment and was...

Dwarfshrub Heaths

Dwarf-shrub heaths are manifold complexes of plant communities distributed circumpolarly within the Low Arctic, penetrating into the High Arctic, and abundant worldwide in mountain alpine and subalpine regions. The term heathland, initially used for the wide open landscapes deforested by humans in England, now refers to ecosystems characterized by evergreen xeric (dry habitat) and mesic (intermediate moisture habitat) plants, dominated by representatives of certain plant families (Ericaceae,...

Ellsworth Lincoln

Lincoln Ellsworth's lifelong ambition was to explore the polar regions. Even though a family friend described him as a reticent, imaginative boy, not nearly so vigorous as many of his schoolmates, and physically not as well equipped as they to lead a rigorous life, his sister Clare Ellsworth Prentice nonetheless declared that her brother couldn't stand civilization Since he was a child he wanted to be out under the sky finding something which nobody ever found before (Ellsworth, 1932 xii). As a...

Flora and Fauna

Alaska's many bioregions contain a wide variety of animal and plant species. The evergreen forests of south coastal and southeast Alaska contain Western hemlock, Sitka spruce, red cedar, Alaska yellow cedar, lodgepole pine, mountain hemlock, black cottonwood, and alder. Bush alder, wild currants, salmonberry, huckleberry, skunk cabbage, bog laurel, Labrador tea, and various kinds of grasses, mosses, horsetails, lichens, fungi, and wildflowers are also common. In the Aleutians and west coastal...

Aleut International Association

The Aleut International Association (AIA) was formed in September 1998 as a nonprofit organization representing the Aleut people of Russia and Alaska. Spearheaded by the Aleut leader Flore Lekanof in the hopes of giving Aleuts a voice in the international Arctic community, the association reunites a people who have been separated for 200 years since the US purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867. The formation of the AIA was realized through the efforts of two separate organizations the Aleutian...

Aleut Corporation

The United States Congress passed the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) of 1971 as a means of compensating Alaska Natives for the loss of lands after a long-standing dispute over ownership. The Settlement Act passed titles of land to Alaska Natives and formed 13 regional for-profit corporations, 12 regional nonprofit social service corporations, and over 200 village corporations. Legislation provided a land settlement totaling 44 million acres and a cash settlement of 962.5 million to...

Animals In The Worldviews Of Indigenous Peoples

The indigenous peoples of the Arctic have their own distinctive histories, cultures, economies, and forms of social organization, yet they all share a distinctive and special relationship with their environment and the animals they depend upon, which is essential for economic survival, social identity, and spiritual life. This relationship with nature is reflected in a rich mythology and worldview, and in moral and ethical codes that guide people in their treatment of animals and the...

Nutrient Contributions of Wildlife

There are several ways to understand the nutritional contributions of wildlife animals and plants to diets of Arctic residents. The first avenue of understanding is based on laboratory studies of food components, particularly nutrients, of sampled wildlife tissues. The second avenue is to understand the contribution to daily nutrition of the portion of the individual or community diet derived from wildlife. Both avenues are required for an assessment of dietary intake and quality. Research on...

Late Tertiary Environments

Modern groups of flowering plants and mammals are thought to have evolved mainly during the Early Tertiary, from about 65 to 50 million years ago. This was a time of warm climate throughout most of the world, one of the warmest periods in the late Paleocene Epoch, about 57-55 million years ago. Evidence from marine fossils indicates that sea surface temperatures were as much as 10 C (18 F) warmer than they are today. Carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere were as much as twice the...

Bellot Josephren

Lieutenant de vaisseau Joseph-Ren Bellot is best remembered as the French naval officer who first volunteered for service on two British expeditions to the Canadian Arctic in 1851 to search for survivors of Sir John Franklin's expedition, lost while seeking the North West Passage. He was killed in a tragic accident on his second voyage in 1853. Bellot's early career demonstrated his precocious intelligence, courage, and resolution, which, coupled with his considerate and capable manner, was to...

The Runic Alphabet

It is not known how, when, and where the Runic alphabet was invented, but the oldest extant inscriptions have generally been dated to around AD 200. The earliest version of the alphabet was at this time a full-fledged system including 24 characters, or Runes, from a proto-Germanic word meaning secret. The alphabet seems to have suited the proto-Scandinavian language phonemically, mostly by using one character for each phoneme. The idea of creating an alphabetic writing must have found its...

Fossil Periglacial Phenomena

A general definition of periglacial environments refers to conditions where frost action and permafrost-related processes dominate the physical environment. Common to all periglacial environments are cycles of freezing and thawing of the ground and the presence of permafrost, or perennially frozen ground. Presently, these environments primarily occur at high latitudes in the Arctic and Antarctic and at high elevations in mountainous areas at midlatitudes. About 25 of the Earth's land surface...

Cherevichny Ivan Ivanovich

The Soviet polar pilot Ivan Cherevichny was a pioneer in the exploration of the High Arctic by air. Cherevichny began his polar flights in 1934, conducting flights along the Yenisey River from Krasnoyarsk to Igarka and to Dudinka. In the winter of 1935, he was the first among the pilots working this route to fly from Krasnoyarsk to Igarka in one day, without stopping overnight. Soon he was transferred to the air route Irkutsk-Yakutsk-Tiksi. In the summer of 1935, he investigated a new air...

Byrranga Mountains

The Byrranga Mountains (in the Nganasan language, Saw Mountains) are the most northerly continental mountain system. They are located in the Dolgano-Nenets okrug of Krasnoyarsk kray and form the elevated crest (as 1100 km long) of the Taymyr Peninsula. The mountains trend northeast between 90 E and 111 E and terminate around 76 N close to the Laptev Sea. Elevations of mountain peaks and ridges increase in the northeasterly direction, as does the general width of the mountain system, from 50 to...

Zonation and Succession

Zonation is typified by the more or less latitudinal arrangement of Arctic terrestrial communities around the pole, as described above. It is also exemplified by the altitudinal distribution of biomes on mountains even lofty peaks at the equator have treeless tracts of vegetation at high enough altitudes. Altitudinal zona-tion on Arctic mountains is less pronounced than on mountains of temperate and tropical regions. Nevertheless, as one ascends there is a trend for the vegetation to become...

Alaska Native Language Center

The Alaska Native Language Center (ANLC) was established in 1972 by the state of Alaska to study native Alaskan languages, develop literacy materials, assist in the translation of important documents, provide for the development and dissemination of Alaska Native literature, and train Alaska Native language speakers to work as teachers and aides in bilingual classrooms (AS 14.40.117). The Language Center has since become the preeminent institution for the study of the 20 Athapaskan, Eskimo,...

Curley Tagak

As a community activist, politician, and advocate for northern issues, Tagak Curley has been a prominent political and cultural figure during the 20th century in the Canadian Arctic. His efforts at the local and territorial level were instrumental in bringing Arctic and Inuit issues to the fore and in giving the Inuit a recognized political voice in the north. Curley achieved enormous success and respect for his work to improve the lives of the Inuit of Canada. Since the beginning of the 20th...

Canadian Arctic Resources Committee Carc

The Canadian Arctic Resources Committee (CARC) was founded in 1971 and is one of the oldest nongovernmental organizations working in the Canadian North. CARC promotes a definition of sustainable development that seeks to limit the footprint of industry in the North while ensuring the wise use of renewable and nonrenewable resources. CARC brings an independent and critical but constructive perspective to environmental, economic, constitutional, and other issues. It bridges the gap between North...

Encyclopaedia Arctica

In July 1946, noted Arctic explorer and author Vilhjalmur Stefansson proposed to the United States Navy's Office of Naval Research that he prepare a comprehensive encyclopedia of the Arctic regions to be titled the Encyclopaedia Arctica. The formal proposal for the text, a brief three pages with a five-page appendix, suggested a regional approach with encyclopedic coverage of the entire Arctic with some emphasis on the Subarctic. Ten staff, including Stefansson, would write between four and six...

Convention For The Protection Of The Marine Environment Of The Northeast Atlantic Ospar

The Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR) unified and updated the 1972 Oslo Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping from Ships and Aircraft, and the 1974 Paris Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution from Land-based Sources. The OSPAR Convention is a framework agreement that covers obligations to prevent and eliminate pollution from land-based sources, from dumping and incineration, and from offshore sources, and...

Main Oceanographic Parameters Temperature and Salinity

The vertical distribution of temperature is typical of the Subarctic water structure that in summer features a cold subsurface later (a remnant of winter convection) underlain by an intermediate warm layer. This layered structure is especially well defined over deep basins but poorly defined near the Aleutian Islands and nonexistent over the shallow part of the Eastern Bering Sea Shelf with depths < 70-80 m. In winter, the ocean's large heat losses to the atmosphere drive thermal convection...

Collins Henry B

Henry Collins was among the founders of modern Arctic archaeology, and the first to prove that Eskimo cultures had their origin in Asia rather than Canada. His fieldwork on St Lawrence Island and in other parts of western Alaska, and later in Canada, addressed Eskimo origins and cultural development across the Arctic, from Alaska to Greenland. During his career-spanning association with the Smithsonian Institution, he trained several generations of specialists in Arctic prehistory. Collins...

Beaufort

The Beaufort Sea is a regional sea of the Arctic Ocean situated off the north coast of Canada and Alaska with its northern boundary defined by a line extending from Pt Barrow to Cape Lands End on Prince Patrick Island. It is about 590,000 km2 (227,800 sq mi) in area and connects freely with the Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north. Banks Island and Victoria Island of the Canadian Archipelago form the eastern boundary. The continental shelf (< 200 m), which comprises about...

Badigin Konstantin Sergeyevich

Russian-born Konstantin Sergeyevich Badigin was best known as the captain of the steamer Georgyi Sedov a vessel beset and drifting in the ice of the Arctic Ocean in the years preceding World War II. Near the end of the 1937 navigation season, due to an unfortunate combination of unusually difficult ice conditions and poor decisions as to the deployment of the available Russian icebreakers, 26 ships were forced into an unplanned wintering beset in the ice at various points along the Soviet...

Bowhead Greenland Right Whale

One of the first biological descriptions of the bowhead or Greenland right whale (Balaena mysticetus) is given in the book Drie Voyagien gedaen na Groenlandt, published around 1668 by Gillis Joosten Saeghman in Amsterdam. This book reveals that 17th-century whalers knew a great deal about the biology of whales, probably because they were not only excellent hunters but also very good observers. Thanks to information from such historical sources and data from recent biological research in Alaska,...

De Long Islands

The De Long Islands (Bennett, Jeannette, and Henrietta, Zhokhova, and Vil'kitskii) lie in the East Siberian Sea between Alaska and the Sakha Republic, and may be considered part of the archipelago of the New Siberian Islands (Novosibiriskiye Ostrova). The archipelago is under Russian jurisdiction. On July 8, 1879, the USS Jeannette with Navy Lieutenant George Washington De Long and a crew of 34 left San Francisco for the North Pole by way of the Bering Sea. This controversial route had been...

Alaska Beluga Whale Committee

The Alaska Beluga Whale Committee (ABWC) was founded in 1988 to ensure that beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) stocks in Alaska remained healthy and to forestall involvement of the International Whaling Commission (IWC) in the management of belugas. The North Slope Borough (Alaska) Department of Wildlife Management contacted indigenous beluga-hunting communities throughout Alaska, as well as federal and state agencies, emphasizing the need to take action before a management crisis occurred....

Coppermine River

The historic Coppermine River flows north for 845 km (525 miles), from the barrenlands of the central Canadian Arctic to the Arctic coast at Coronation Gulf, in Nunavut. Today named for the native copper deposits traditionally used by the Copper Inuit and First Nations peoples, the river's original local name was Kogloktok or Qurluqtuq meaning the place of moving water. Rising in the center of the barrens at Lac de Gras, the Coppermine flows northwest through Point Lake, winds through forested...

Fur and Fashion Today

In Russia, fur never went out of fashion. Descendants of Cossack traders became Old Settlers and continued to trade for furs. More settlers and peasants arrived in northern areas after the revolution, increasing pressure on habitats and animal populations. Native people often did not trade furs unless they were given a good deal, including friendly arrangements with traders such as hospitality and credit, and when these conditions were not met by traders under the new system, the fur trade...

Collinson Richard

In the annals of exploration of the Arctic, Captain Richard Collinson, of the British Royal Navy, is often portrayed as a tragic figure who narrowly missed great discoveries because of his cautiousness. Between 1848 and 1859, Collinson headed one of the more than fifty naval and private expeditions that sought to discover and rescue the crews of Sir John Franklin's ships the Erebus and Terror that had gone missing in 1845. Collinson sailed from England aboard the Enterprise in January 1850. The...

Back Sir George

George Back, a British born admiral and explorer, took part in five Arctic expeditions during the 19th century. Yet he is little known even in Canada, where his record matches that of any other Arctic explorer. Bumptiousness, exacerbated by his five-foot stature, often caused prickly relationships. The derring-do of Viscount Horatio Nelson's navy lured Back to sea at the young age of twelve-and-a-half, first as a class volunteer on HMS Arethusa cruising the western coasts of France and Spain...