Family Bunker Plans
Total primary energy supply (TPES) is made up of production + imports - exports - international marine bunkers - international aviation bunkers stock changes. Note In October 2008 the IEA hosted the third meeting of InterEnerStat. This group is made up of 24 international organisations that collect or use energy statistics. One of the objectives of the group is to improve the quality of energy data by harmonising definitions for energy sources and flows. As a result of this meeting, the IEA has decided to align its energy statistics and balances with most other international organisations and to treat international aviation bunkers in the same way as international marine bunkers. Starting with this edition, international aviation bunkers will no longer be included in the transport sector at the country level. It will be subtracted out of supply in the same way as international marine bunkers.
Row 6 Transport contains emissions from the combustion of fuel for all transport activity, regardless of the sector, except for international marine bunkers and international aviation. This includes domestic aviation, domestic navigation, road, rail and pipeline transport, and corresponds to IPCC Source Sink Category 1 A 3. In addition, the IEA data are not collected in a way that allows the autoproducer consumption to be split by specific end-use and therefore, this publication shows autoproducers as a separate item. See Row 3, Unallocated autoproducers. Row 13 International marine bunkers contains emissions from fuels burned by ships of all flags that are engaged in international navigation. The international navigation may take place at sea, on inland lakes and waterways, and in coastal waters. Consumption by ships engaged in domestic navigation is excluded. The domestic international split is determined on the basis of port of departure and port of arrival, and not by the flag or...
Some countries have incorrectly defined bunkers as fuel used abroad by their own ships and planes. Still other countries have made calculation errors for carbon oxidation or have included international bunkers in their totals. Since all of the above will affect the national totals of CO2 emissions from fuel combustion, a systematic comparison with the IEA estimates
Environmental and Economic Issues from Changing a Major Fuel Type as Energy Resource in an Industrial City in Korea
Because of heavy contribution from industrial sources to air pollution in Ulsan, the government of Korea had designated Ulsan as an area particularly requiring countermeasures to air pollution. Also, the local government of Ulsan has adopted many regulations to cut down emissions of air pollutants or improve its air quality. For example, the use of solid fuel such as coal was prohibited except in few big facilities in 1985. In addition, gradual increase in the use of low-sulfur fuel and clean fuel such as liquefied natural gas has been required since 1988. The regulations to limit maximum content of sulfur in fuel have also been reinforced since their adoption in 1981. The sulfur content in fuels such as bunker fuel oil C (B-C) was 4.0 and 2.5 in early and late 1980s, respectively. The current sulfur content in B-C oil applied to new and some existing plants in Ulsan has been 0.3 , an ultra low sulfur fuel, since 2001, with 1.6 in 1991 and 0.5 in 1997. economic benefits expected when...
According to PMT, higher levels of response efficacy and self-efficacy increase the likelihood of an adaptive response whereas higher response costs may preclude performing an adaptive behaviour. Response efficacy in Fig. 10.1 pertains to a more generalized knowledge of what to do or not do that may be adaptive in responding to a weather or climate event (Kroemker and Mosler 2002). For example, response efficacy would be evident in knowing that the safest place to be during a tornado is in either a basement or storm cellar (i.e., the lowest, most protected area in a building). Similarly, knowing that one should wear light-colored clothing and adequately hydrate while also avoiding exertion in the hottest portion of the day would evidence response efficacy. Response efficacy is concerned with knowing that or knowing what.
The sectoral disaggregation adopted reflects the materiality of the sector, its economic coherence homogeneity and the ready availability of relevant data. For example, in the case of transportation, given its significance for energy as a whole and its paramount importance for oil demand, three types of inland transportation (road passenger, road freight and air transport) have been distinguished. Bunker fuel demand has also been modelled separately. The
Some countries have incorrectly defined bunkers as fuel used abroad by their own ships and planes. Still other countries have made calculation errors for carbon oxidation or have included international bunkers in their totals. Since all of the above will affect the national totals of CO2 emissions from fuel combustion, a systematic comparison with the IEA estimates would allow countries to verify their calculations and produce more internationally comparable inventories. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, military emissions should be reported in Source Sink Category 1 A 5, Other (not elsewhere specified). Previously, the IEA questionnaires requested that warships be included in international marine bunkers and that the military use of aviation fuels be included in domestic air. All other military use should have been reported in non-specified other sector.
Methane can also be generated in the waste bunker of incinerators if there are low oxygen levels and subsequent anaerobic processes in the waste bunker. This is only the case where wastes are wet, stored for long periods and not well agitated. Where the storage area gases are fed into the air supply of the incineration chamber, they will be incinerated and emissions will be reduced to insignificant levels (BREF, 2005).
Top-down data can be obtained from taxation authorities in cases where fuel sold for domestic use is subject to taxation, but that for international use is not taxed. Airports or fuel suppliers may have data on delivery of aviation kerosene and aviation gasoline to domestic and to international flights. In most countries tax and custom dues are levied on fuels for domestic consumption, and fuels for international consumption (bunkers) are free of such dues. In the absence of more direct sources of data, information about domestic taxes may be used to distinguish between domestic and international fuel consumption.
Transport in EU-15 emitted 845 million tons of CO2 in 2003 (921 million if the 10 new member states are counted). This corresponds to a rise in the transport share of the total GHG emission aggregate from around 21 to around 25 between 1990 and 2003 (all excluding emissions from international aviation and marine bunkers). Transport growth over the last decade has resulted in transport GHG emissions in the EU-15 increasing by 20 since 1990, while other sectors have decreased their emissions by 10 .
International Bunkers International Aviation (International Bunkers) International Water-borne Transport (International Bunkers) 1A3 ai International Aviation (International Bunkers) (1) 1A3 di International Water-borne Navigation (International Bunkers) (1) International Bunkers International Aviation (International Bunkers) International Water-borne Transport (International Bunkers) International Aviation (International Bunkers) (2) International Water-borne Navigation (International Bunkers) (2)
Anyone who visits Andreeva Bay, which lies halfway between the Russian town of Severomorsk and the Norwegian border, can see at first hand just how much damage this practice has inflicted. This is the site of a huge nuclear waste facility where in recent years tons of highly radioactive waste with large amounts of uranium have been slowly leaking out of the crumbling concrete bunkers and the rusting containers that are supposed to keep it safe and secure. In recent years the local fish population has been virtually killed off by radioactive leaks, while on the mainland both the soil and the
* The ratio for the world has been calculated to include emissions from international marine bunkers and international aviation. The ratios for individual countries and regions do not include these emissions. For information, the world ratio excluding emissions from international marine bunkers and international aviation is 4.13 t CO2 per capita in 2006.
* The ratio for the world has been calculated to include emissions from international marine bunkers and international aviation. The ratios for individual countries and regions do not include these emissions. For information, the world ratio excluding emissions from international marine bunkers and international aviation is 0.72 kg CO2 per US 2000 in 2006.
* The ratio for the world has been calculated to include emissions from international marine bunkers and international aviation. The ratios for individual countries and regions do not include these emissions. For information, the world ratio excluding emissions from international marine bunkers and international aviation is 0.47 kg CO2 per US using 2000 prices and purchasing power parities in 2006.
* The ratio for the world has been calculated to include emissions from international marine bunkers and international aviation. The ratios for individual countries and regions do not include these emissions. For information, the world ratio excluding emissions from international marine bunkers and international aviation is 56.5 t CO2 per terajoule in 2006.
International Bunkers 4 of 5 Emissions from International Bunkers (International Marine and Air Transport) (a) Enter the quantities from Worksheet 1, Sheet 1, Column D International Bunkers . (a) Enter the quantities from Worksheet 1, Sheet 1, Column D International Bunkers . 5 of 5 Emissions from International Bunkers (International Marine and Air Transport) (a) The bunker emissions are not to be added to national totals. (a) The bunker emissions are not to be added to national totals.
Unfortunately, local hydrocarbon pollution incidents have occurred in Antarctica (e.g. Jouventin et al. 1984 Cripps 1992b), and there are many reports of oiled or killed seabirds (e.g. Williams 1984 Croxall 1987). In general, the most significant oil spills have been caused by shipwrecks, collisions or accidents during bunker fuel transfer. Cripps and Shears (1997), for instance, studied the fate of 1,000 l of an accidentally spilled diesel fuel at
The estimates of CO2 emissions in this publication are based on the 1996 IPCC Guidelines and represent the total emissions from fuel combustion. Emissions have been calculated using both the IPCC Reference Approach and the IPCC Sectoral Approach (which corresponds to IPCC Source Sink Category 1 A). Reference Approach totals may include certain fugitive emissions from energy transformation which should normally be included in Category 1 B. National totals do not include emissions from international marine bunkers and international aviation. See Chapter 1, IEA emissions estimates for further details.
Advice, comment, field assistance and companionship has come from many-individuals but I am particularly indebted to P.J. Barrett, R.M. Kirk, M.C.G. Mabin, C. Montieth, I.F. Owen and R.B. Thompson. Skilled technical assistance was provided by L. Cotterall and R. Harris. The manuscript was typed by R. Bunker.
The first step of the Reference Approach is to estimate apparent consumption of fuels within the country. This requires a supply balance of primary and secondary fuels (fuels produced, imported, exported, used in international transport (bunker fuels) and stored or removed from stocks). In this way carbon is brought into the country from energy production and imports (adjusted for stock changes) and moved out of the country through exports and international bunkers. In order to avoid double counting it is important to distinguish between primary fuels, which are fuels found in nature such as coal, crude oil and natural gas, and secondary fuels or fuel products, such as gasoline and lubricants, which are derived from primary fuels. A complete list of fuels is provided in Section 18.104.22.168 of the Energy Volume Introduction chapter. the amounts of primary and secondary fuels used in international bunkers - International Bunkers fuel - Stock Change l - International Bunkers uuel - Stock...
Due to confidentiality issues (see completeness and reporting), many inventory compilers may have difficulty obtaining data for the quantity of fuel used by the military. Military activity is defined here as those activities using fuel purchased by or supplied to the military authorities in the country. Countries can apply the rules defining civilian, national and international aviation operations to military operations when the data necessary to apply those rules are comparable and available. In this case, the international military emissions may be reported under International Aviation (International Bunkers), but must then be shown separately. Data on military fuel
The largest sources of CO2 from the burning of fossil fuels are liquid fuels (such as gasoline or diesel), 36 percent solid fuels (such as coal and wood), 35 percent gaseous fuels (such as natural gas), 20 percent international bunkers, four percent and cement production, 3 percent, according to research by M.R. Raupach. The most common human activity that produces an abundance of CO2 in the atmosphere is the use of liquid fuels in driving an automobile. Other greenhouse gases that are produced from the burning of liquid fuel in engines include, but are not limited to, methane and ozone gas (CH4 and O3).
This series of prohibitions restricts how wastes subject to LDR requirements are handled. The most visible aspect of the LDR program is the disposal prohibition, which includes treatment standards, variances, alternative treatment standards (ATSs), and notification requirements. Land disposal means placement in or on the land, except in a corrective action unit, and includes, but is not limited to, placement in a landfill, surface impoundment, waste pile, injection well, land treatment facility, salt dome formation, salt bed formation, underground mine or cave, or placement in a concrete vault, or bunker intended for disposal purposes. The other two components work in tandem with the disposal prohibition to guide the regulated community in proper hazardous waste management. The dilution prohibition ensures that wastes are properly treated, and the storage prohibition ensures that waste will not be stored indefinitely to avoid treatment.
Memo international marine bunkers ** * Other includes industrial waste and non-renewable municipal waste. ** World includes international marine bunkers and international aviation. * Other includes industrial waste and non-renewable municipal waste. ** World includes international marine bunkers and international aviation.
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