There are several reasons for studying atmosphcre-ocean-biospherc interactions and the resultant climate during the Holocene: (1) observational studies and calculations with climate models indicate that changes in Earth's orbital geometry and the consequent precisely known changes in the seasonal and latitudinal distribution of solar radiation caused large climate changes; (2) the observed changes in the climate and the terrestrial biosphere during the Holocene were large in both spatial scale and magnitude, and therefore it should be possible to simulate these changes with current-generation climate models; and (3) data sets (terrestrial vegetation, lake status, indicators

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