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stack gases, carbon dioxide removal from, 77 START (Global Change System for Analysis

Research and Training), 287 Stone, Peter, 95

stratosphere cooling of, 9, 31 ozone in, 2, 4-6,9-10, 16 temperature in, x, 2 WCRP studies on, 282 Stratospheric Processes and Their Role in Climatc

HPPARQ, 28K 282, 283

sub-Milankovitch climate variability, in I^st

Glacial Maximum, 183 subpolar regions, climate changes in, xii sulfate aerosols, 15, 26, 30, 93 anthropogenic, 25, 26, 38, 181 from marine biogenic dimethyl sulfide,

28-29 from sulfur dioxide, 15 sulfur, in atmosphere, 19, 26 sulfur cycle in Earth System Models, 113 mineral dust effects on, 30 sulfur dioxide in atmosphere, x, 33 mineral dust as sink for, 30 sulfate aerosol from, 15, 26, 30, 93 sulfuric acid in stratospheric particles, 7, 9 as sulfate aerosol precursor, 28, 30 Sun energy from. See solar radiation faint young Sun problem of, 203-19 sunburn, UY-radiation induced, 4 swamp oceans, atmospheric models coupled to,

166-7, 205

systems approach, to climate change studies, 275, 279

taiga in Last Glacial Maximum, 127, 129, 130 northern expansion of, 168 Tahiti, climatc variations in, 44 tar sand, reserves of, 67 r trajectory, of ecosystem response, 115 Taylor Dome, ice cores of, 152 TEM Earth System Model, 182 temperature, recent elevations of, 140-1 terpenes, ozone reaction with, 30 terrestrial biogcochcmical models (TBMs), 53 terrestrial biosphere carbon dioxide release to, 66, 71-73 carbon dioxide storage in, 75-77 Holoccnc changes in, 163 human modifications of, 179-81 interactions in climatc models, 167-70, 176-95

T42 horizontal model resolution, 55 thcrmo-halinc circulation (THC) changes in, 220, 221, 240, 244, 249, 250 collapse of, 153-4, 155, 156, 157,158, 159 fibrillation of, 199 global, 150 modeling of, 232 role in climate, x, xi, 261 two-box model for, 149 Third World, participation in global monitoring studies, 287 Thompson, Starlcy, 95 Titus, J., climatc studies of, 99-100 TOPEX POSEIDON system, ocean studies using, 285 trace gases annual fluctuations in, xi biogcochcmical control by, 53 exchanges in Holocene, 169 industrial emissions of, 18 sink functions of, 18, 19 tropical photooxdiation of, 15 tree rings, use for carbon dioxide studies, 38

trichlorocthane. See methy l chloroform

Tropical Atlantic, ozone over, 24 Tropical Ocean/Global Atmosphere (TOGA)

project, 28K 283,285 Tropics anthropogenic effects on, xi biomass burning in, 23-24, 114 carbon dioxide in, 59, 114, 180 climatic changes in, x, 94 deforestation in, 21-22, 25, 32,43,49-50, 72

glaciation in, 212, 213, 223 land-use changes in, 19 in I^ast Glacial Maximum, 185, 186 methane oxidation in, 21 ocean upwclling in, 166 troposphcric photooxidation in, 15 Younger Drvas cooling event in, 152 troposphere nitrogen oxides in, 23-24 ozone in, xi, 2, 3,4

tundra isotopic disequilibrium in, 40 palcoclimatc of, 129 tundra-forest ecotone, shifts in, 128 two-box model, for ocean, 149

ultraviolet radiation aerosol effects on, 26, 31 biologically activc (UV-B), 4,9

ultraviolet radiation (cant.) ozone thinning and, 16 shields for, 205 in stratosphere, 30 from Sun. See solar radiation in Tropics, 21 in trosposphere, 18 United Nations Conference of the Parties, 103 Framework Convention on Climate Change,

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