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Figure 9.5. Left: Prescribed increase of atmospheric CO2 until a maximum concentration is reached. The rates of increase arc 1%/yr (exps. 560, 650, 750) and are slightly higher than the increase of CO2 in ihc 1980s. Additional experiments are performed with 0.5%/yr (exp. 750S) and 2%/yr (exp, 650F). Right: Evolution of the overturning volume transport of the thcrmo-haline circulation in the North Atlantic, For an increase of 1%/yr the threshold value is between 650 ppm am! 750 ppm, \\ hen 1 hat is passed, the thcrmo-haline circulation decreases and a new stable state is reached. The circulation recovers if the CO2 increase is slower (exp. 750S), or it collapses if it is faster (exp, 650F) (from Stocker and Schmittner, 1997).

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