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atmosphere-ocean-vegetation system, role in climatc, 138

atmosphere-terrestrial biosphere partitioning, of carbon dioxide, 71-73 atmospheric inversion techniques, for carbon dioxide sinks, 115 Australia, proposed biosphere studies for, 286 autotrophic respiration, carbon dioxide release in, 178

Azores, high-pressure system in, 45

bacteria methanogcnic, 209 survival in glacial periods, 215 Barbados, carbon dioxide studies in, 59 BcrmudaBLisc, sediment record of, 26Q beryllium-10, in ice cores, 258 ft factor, in tracking carbon dioxide, 114 bicarbonate ions, from silicate weathering, 207 biogcochcmical cycles monitoring of, 286 role in climatc, ix, xi-xii, 177 biogcochcmical feedback, in climatc changc, 176 biogcochcmical models, of Earth System, 113-18, 182

biogeographical feedback, by vegetation, 53 biogeographical models, of Earth System, 182 biogcophysical feedback, in climate change, 176 biomass burning aerosols from, 26 carbon dioxide from, 49, 114 emissions from, 15, 16, 178

methane from, 20 nitrogen oxides from, 23-24 ozone from, 24 BIOME models, 53,182

vegetation-climate feedback in, 129 biosphere anthropogenic effects on, xi role in climate, xii, xiv Biosphere 2, carbon dioxide studies in, 77 bioversity, losses of, 102 black body, Earth as, 90

Bolling-Allcrod-YD sequence, in Greenland ice core, 154 Boiling interstadial, 241

bomb-test radiocarbon, of carbon dioxide in ocean,

69, 70, 73 Bond cycles, 185, 242, 244 boric acid, formation in sea water, 67, 68 boron, in glacial ocean, 237 boundary forcing, of climate, 88 Bow en ratio, 115 Brazil, deforestation in, 49 "Brcthcrton" diagram, 16, 17 British Antarctic Survey, ozone studies of, 5, 6 bromine gases ozone destruction by, 10 sanctions against production of, 8

cadmium, in scawatcr, 229, 230, 232 calcium carbonate in foraminifera shells, 207, 229 in sea sediments, 67, 235, 237 calcium ions, from silicate weathering, 207 California, palcoclimatc of, 249 canopy conductance, ecosystem effects on, 178 cap-and-trade policy, for emission reduction, 106 CARAIB, as Earth System Model, 182 carbon-13 atmospheric, 40, 41 in Last Glacial Maximum oceans, 185 in paleooceanographic reconstructions, 156 in seawater, 228, 229, 230, 232 carbon-14

use in carbon dioxide studies, 73 in YD atmosphere, 156 Carbon America Plan, 286 carbonate mctamorphism, 207 carbonate-silicate cycle, carbon dioxide and, 205-7 carbon cycle in Earth System Models, 113 fluxes in, 50

global mechanics of, 200 models of, 58-59, 115

monitoring of, 286 nitrogen cycle and, 178

temperature and precipitation effects on, xi, xii terrestrial carbon dioxide role in, 52, 57, 177 variability of, 114, 220 Carbon Cycle Model Linkage Project (CCMLP), 58,60

carbon dioxide atmospheric importance of, 1

157,158,159,179,264,265, 286 biospheric exchanges of, 52-65 carbonate-silicate cycle and, 205-7 climate effects of, 93, 94,95P7, 170, 177 effects on El Niño, 170-1 excess storage of, 71-72 exchanges of, 57-61, 179, 180 fate on sea floor, 78 fertilization by, 72

from fossil fuel combustion, 15, 19, 142 future distribution of, 66-80 in glacial climates, 232-5 global variations of, 40-42 as greenhouse gas, ix, x, 19 hemispheric variations of, 42-45 high-altitude exchange of, 47 in ice clouds, 214

industrial emissions of, 16, 19, 99, 103 infrared radiation absorption by, 90-91 insolation thresholds and, 125-6 isotopic variations of, 59-60, 156 in I^st Glacial Maximum, 185, 186 missing sink for, 113 monitoring of, 286 ocean uptake of, 157 oxygen isotope ratios in, 63 in paleoclimates, x-xi, 84, 85, 216 radiative forcing from, 203 role in glacial-interglacial cycles, 119-46 seasonal variations in, 45-46, 50 sequestration of, 79 sinks for, 50,113, 176 stratospheric cooling by, 31 terrestrial levels of, 47-49, 114 carbonic acid, formation from carbon dioxide, 206

carbon monoxide effects on climate, 22, 30

fire as source of, 178

hvdroxvl radical réaction with, 22

industrical emissions of, 18 as ozone precursor, 23 carbon pulse hypothesis, 187

carbon sink anthropogenic, 39, 47 in nonagricultural ecosystems, 187 partitioning of, 38 carbon tax, on carbon emissions, 99, 104, 106 Carnegie Mellon University, climate studies of, 97, 98

cattle, methane emission by, 20, 209 CCMI models, vegetation-climate feedback in,

129, 130 Cess, Robert, 95 Chapman reactions, of ozone, 5 chemical detergent, hydroxy! radical as, xi China, paleoclimate in, 2A2 chlorate radical, stratospheric formation of, 9, 31 chlorine from decay of chlorofluorocarbons, 5 stratospheric formation of, 7,9, 10, 31 chlorine dioxide, from decay of chlorofluorocarbons, 5 chlorine gases, sanctions against production of, 8 chlorine nitrate, stratospheric production of, 5-6 chlorine radical, stratospheric formation of, 31 chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) atmospheric decay of, 8 effects on atmosphere, 15, 74 effects on climate, x, 91 increase of, 38 industrial emissions of, 18 ozone destruction by, x, xiii, 1, 5 phase-out of, 8, 10, 101 use in carbon dioxide studies, 73 CibicidtSy in present oceans, 228 clathrates, methane liberation from, 22

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