Info

marine life, impacts on, 16

mathematical modeling, of Earth's system, xiv

Mauna Loa (Hawaii), carbon dioxide studies on,

16, 38,42,45,46, 59 meltwater events, 153, 155 methane in atmosphere, 264, 265

biogeochemical control by, 53,177-8

clathrates of, 22

climate effects on, xi, 30

in Earth System Models, 182

emission of, 15,179, 180

future distribution of, 66

as greenhouse gas, ix, x, 19-20

hydroxyl radical reaction with, 21

increase of, 38

industrial emissions of, 18

infrared radiation absorption by, 90-91

from land-use changes, 32

in I^ist Glacial Maximum, 185, 258

as ozone precursor, 23

in paleoclimates, 84, 85, 235,249

role in faint young Sun problem, 208-12

sinks for, 19-22

mcthylchloridc ocean emissions of, 5 in stratosphere, 9 methyl chloroform hydroxy 1 radical reaction with, 18-19, 21 industrical emissions of, 18 microbial fermentation, methane from, 20, 22 micropaleontological transfer functions, 223 Milankovitch, Milutin, Pleistocene ice age theory of, 119, 121, 183, 220 mineral dust, 25

as sink for tracer gases, 30 Miocene, climate changes in, xii mixed-layer oceans, atmospheric models coupled to, 166-7 modeling, of climate, x, 88-89 models, hierarchy of, 104-5 monsoon climate efTectson, 168 ocean temperature effects on, 169 orbital forcing effects on, 165, 166 ■ predictions of, 2Si

Montreal Protocol, methvl chloroform restriction by, 18

Moon, orbit of, 213

Morgan, M. G., climate studies of, 99-100 Mt. Agung eruption, climate effects of, 87 Mt. Krakatoa eruption, climate effects of, 87 Mt. Pinatubo eruption, climate effects of, 59, 60, 86-87, 117

N. pachyderma, in deep-sea sediments, 240, 242 National Academy of Sciences, greenhouse warming assessment by, 102 National Oceanic and Atmospheric

Administration (NOAA), ozone studies of, 6 National Research Council, climate policy studies of, 101, 102, 103 natural gas reservoirs, spent, carbon dioxide disposal in, 77 NCAR model, vegetation-climate feedback in, 130 Ncoproterozoic glaciations, temperatures in, 207 Neptune, magnetic field of, 212 net ecosystem productions (NEP), of carbon, 114 net primary production (NPP), of carbon dioxide,

178, 180, 187 New Zealand, Younger Dryas cooling event in, 152 nitrate, in glacial ocean, 237-8 nitric acid mineral dust as sink for, 30 stratospheric condensation of, 7, 9 nitric oxide effects on ozone, 5

emissions of, xi, 178 from land-use changes, 15, 32, 117 from supersonic transport aircraft, 5 nitrogen in atmosphere, 1,19 solar radiation absorption of, 3 nitrogen cycle in Earth System Models, 113 global, 114

mineral dust effects on, 30

temperature and precipitation effects on, xi,

0 0

Post a comment