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nitrogen fertilization in agriculture, 72, 75-76, 117, 181 as carbon sink, 47 nitrogen oxides in atmosphere, x in Earth System Models 182 increasing levels of, 30 in tropical atmosphere, 22 in troposphere, 23 nitrous oxide in atmosphere, 264, 265 biogeochemical control by, 53 effects on ozone, 5 emissions of, xi, 18, 178 future distribution of, 66 as greenhouse gas, ix, x, 19-20, 23 increase of, 38

infrared radiation absorption by, 90-91 from land-use changes, 15, 32 in I^ist Glacial Maximum, 185 in paleoclimates, 84 sinks for, 19-22 sources of, 116, 117 nonlinearities, in Earth System, 147-62, 275 nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) biogenic emissions of, 23 in Earth System Models, 182 as products of photosynthesis, 178 Nordhaus, William, climate studies of, 99-100 normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), for carbon dioxide, 46, 47 North America, carbon dioxide storage in, 72 North Atlantic deep "atcr (NADW), 151, 156, 157,200, 240, 244 nutrient depletion in, 228 WCRP studies on, 28.V283 North Atlantic Ocean carbon dioxide in, 71 climate over, 153 palcoclimatcs of, 220 past salinity of, 225, 226, 228

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