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alkenone paleothermometrv, 223 Amazon Basin cloud concentration nuclei over, 28 deforestation of, 21 ammonia as aerosol constituent, 117 in paleoclimates, 205 Anderson, James, 95 Andes, tropical glaciers from, 262 animal husbandry, methane from, 20, 209 Antarctica ice core studies in, xi, xiv, 156, 247, 258

ozone destruction in, x, 1, 5, 6, 7, 10 ozone hole over, 31, 286 sea level changes in, 133, 153 temperature changes in, 24ii Antarctic bottom water (AABW) increases of, 200 nutrient depletion in, 228 simulation of, 232, 233 Antarctic cold reversal (ACR), 122, 152 anthropogenic effects in aerosol production, 30 on atmosphere, ix, xi, xiii, 9, 13-80 on carbon dioxide levels, 38-51 on climate, vii, 85, 87, 93, 142, 176 on greenhouse gases, 264 on halogenated hydrocarbon emission, 16-19 in ozone destruction, 7 anthropogenic radiative forcing, 91 Arabian Sea, nitrate in, 238 Archaean Era, atmospheric methane in, 209, 210, 211 Arctic ice core studies on, 262 ozone columns in, 9 ozone depiction over, 32, 33 ozone hole in, 31-32 temperature changes in, 249 Arctic Climate System Study and Climate and

Cryosphere (ACSYS/CLIC), 282, 283, 284 argon, in atmosphere, 1, 74 Arrhenius, xi

Ascension Island, carbon dioxide studies on, 59 Atlantic Ocean carbon dioxide transport by, 75 deep-water formation in, 9 glacial climate over, 238-240 pH of, 237

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