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vegetation-snow albedo feedback (VSAF), in paleoclimates, 119,133-9, 140 Venus, carbon dioxide atmosphere of, 203 volatile organic carbon (VOC) as aerosol precursor, 30, 33 emission of, 115 volcacnic eruptions carbon dioxide return by, 207 effect on climate, xi, 86-87 ice core records of, 264, 265 Vostok (Antarctica)

ice conHtidies on, 200, 232, 236, 259, 260. 265, 266, istopic temeratures in, 122

Washington, Warren, 95 waste disposal, methane from, 20

water biospheric exchanges of, 52—65 oxygen isotope ratios in, 63 supply changes, for, 102 water cycle, 53-57

models of, 59 water table, level changes of, 22 water vapor in atmosphere, 33 hydroxyl radical from, 22 infrared radiation absorption by, 90 in paleoclimates, 84, 205 role in atmospheric photochemistry, 2, 15

role in ozone splitting, 4 water vapor-surface temperature-greenhouse feedback, 91 weather. See climatc wetlands climatc effects on, 168 methane emission by, 20, 22, 179, 209 Wiglcy, Tom, 95

win-win strategies, for emission reduction, 106-7 Working Group for Coupled Modeling (WGCM),

281,282, 283, 284 Working Group on Numerical Experimentation

(WGNE), 281,282,283,284 World Climatc Research Programme (WCRP), xiv, 117,267,285 achievements of, 2&3

Conference on Achievements Benefits and

Challenges (1997), 282-3 projects and modeling groups of, 282-283 research objectives of, 280-281 World Meteorological Organization (W.VIO), 280. 286

World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE),

Younger Dryas cooling event, 122, 147, 148, 151-2, 155-6, 200, 257, 258

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