Index 299

^H of, 237,23& Southern Ocean input to, 150 Younger Drvas cooling event in, 152 Pacific Walker Circulation, enhancement of, 169 PAGES (Past Global Chang«) project, 262 Paleoclimate Model Intercomparwon Programme

paleoclimatcs. xii abrupt changes in, 152-6, 221, 240-7 astronomical theory of, 119-25 greenhouse implications of, 199-202 ice core studies of, 26>-6 studies of, 112 PaleopnKero/oic glaciations, 207, 212 palcosols, in studies of greenhouse gases, 20K paleotcmperaturc equation, 224, 225 paleothermometry, use in ice core studies, 223.258 parameterization of general circulation models, 89-90 testing of, 22 permafrost climate change and. 112 methane clathrates in, 22 petroleum reservoirs, spent, carbon dioxide disposal in, 22

pi I, of glacial ocean, 235,237-« Phanero/oic glaciation, 212 phosphate, in glacial ocean, 237 phosphorus in atmosphere, 12 in scawater, 222. photochemical modeling, of paleoclimate methane, 211

photochemistry, atmospheric, LLi photosynthesis effects on carbon dioxide levels, 45. 47, 49, 52.

99, 177, 12a in seawater, 22& in Tropics, 19 phytoplankton, in glacial occan, 237 planetary waves, greenhouse gas effects of, 12 plants oxygen in leaf water of, iiL=hl phenology of, Lll role in atmosphere-climate variations 122 role in cvapotranspiration, 53,52 UV radiation effects on, 1 Pleistocene icc ages, 124.112

Milankovitch theory of, H9, IJL 183,22Q Pliocene carbon dioxide levels in, 142 icc sheets in, 12! Point Barrow, seasonal carbon dioxide levels in, ifi polar desert, paleoclimate of, 122 polar haloclinc catastrophe, Lii polar icc stable isotopes in, 112 use for climatc studies, Ihl polar night vortex, effect on Arctic ozone hole, 12 polar stratospheric clouds (PSC), role in ozone l0tt.ll pollen fossils paleoclimate indicators, 84,152.

m pollution aerosol role in, il environmental effects of. lfi pollution pipe approach, to climate change studies

275-7.222 population growth, control of, 1H2 Portugal, paleoclimates of, 240-2 power plants carbon dioxide removal from gases of, 22

Precambnan glaciation. 212,211 precipitation oxygen isotopes in, 62 temperature change and. L& precipitation minus evaporation, occan buoyancy flux and, 199 Prinn, Ronald, 25 Protero/.oic glaciation, 214, 216

Quaternary climate change* in, 21& occan temperatures in, 224 Quaternary Ice Age, climate variations in, 122 Quekcava icc cap (Andes), ENSO records in, Ihl radiant energy. Earth's emission of, 2il radiation balance, of atmosphere, 5i radiative balance, of Earth, 149 radiative climate forcing, 38, 84, 87.105

by greenhouse gases, 117, 203, 2ft 5 radiative cooling, as atmospheric feedback, 2* 31 radiometric dating methods for orbital changes 165

radiosonde studies, of stratosphere temperature, x Red field ratios of fixed nitrogen, 22 in marine carbon cycle, llii research and development (R&D), subsidies for.

UH reservoirs ft* carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide disposal in, 77,22 respiration effect on ecosystem exchange, 47-48

respiration (cont.)

interannual variations in, 49 role in biospheric exchanges, 52 rice farming, methane from, 20, 21 rooting depth, ecosystem effects on, 178 Rotmans, Jan, climate studies of, 98 "runaway" climate changes, xii

Sahara monsoon rainfall in, 168, 170 paleoclimate of, 183 Sahara desert in green planet simulation, 55 monitoring station in, 287 as self-sustaining, 184 salty aquifers, carbon dioxide disposal in, 77 satellite imagery of deforestation, 49 of photosynthctic activity, 47 satellites, use for carbon dioxide tracking, 114 Schneider, Stephen, 95 sea ice reduction effects on climate, 128, 129 role in atmospheric models, 165-6, 184 sea level climate cfTccts on, 97, 131 in glacial-interglacial cycles, 119-46 reconstruction of, 153 vegetation changes and, 127-31 vegetation-snow feedbacks and, 133-9 seasalt aerosol lev els of, 26, 28

as source of reactive halogen, 30 sea surface salinity (SSS), of glacial occan, 200,

■ 224-5, m sea surface temperatures (SSTs), 123-4

in atmospheric models, 55, 165-6, 167, 169, 184 cfTccts on climate, 249, 258 of glacial ocean, 221-3, 238, 244, 242 in I lolocenc Pacific, 171 sediment studies, of oceans, xi, 67, 220, 223, 224,

235, 237, 240, 242, 249, 260 scmitropical regions, climate changes in, xii sensitivity studies, of climate-impact factors, 278 siderite, 208

silicate mineral aerosols, light absorption by, 28 silicate weathering, calcium carbonate from, 206, 211

Simple Diagnostic Biosphere Model (SDBM), 59 sinks, lack of, for halogenated hydrocarbons, 18 skin cancer incidence of, 8 UV-radiation induced, 4

"sky is falling" syndrome, of global changes, 275 slope sediments, methane clathrates in, 22 smog, aerosol role in, 25, 26, 31 smoke, transport patterns of, 24 smoke aerosols, radiative effects of, 26, 28 smoke-spark arresters, for early locomotives, 278

snapshot simulations, of Holocene climates, 170 snowball Earth hypothesis, 201, 212-16 social factors in climate changes, 275 in emission reduction, 107 soil dust aerosol, levels of, 26, 28 soils, global warming effects on, 72 soil-vegctation-atmospherc-transport (SVAT)

model, 53 solar evolution models, 203 solar luminosity formula for, 204 in past, 208 solar radiation aerosol absorption of, 26 atmospheric penetration by, 3,91 effect on atmosphere, ix, xii, 120 ice core studies of, 264 ozone absorption of, 2, 3 skin damage by, 4, 8,9 soot, light absorption by, 28 South and Southeast Asia, deforestation in, 49 Southeast Asian Integrated Study, on global change, 276 Southern I lemispherc carbon dioxide variations in, 42, 43-44, 45, 58, 76

climate variations in, 87, 128 Louvain-la-Neuve climate model for, 119 paleoclimate in, 84, 164 Younger Dryas cooling event in, 152 Southern Ocean carbon dioxide in, 71, 76 deep water flow lines of, 230 nutrient content of, 235 Southern Oscillation index (SOI), for carbon dioxide levels, 43, 44 South Pole, carbon dioxide levels at, 42 species extinction, atmospheric effects of, 16 SPECMAPs, paleoclimate simulation with, 124 Sr/Ca paleothermometer, use for glacial studies,

0 0

Post a comment