Index

forests (toni.) i regrowth of, 22

tropical, isotopic disequilibrium in, ¿0 fossil-fuel burning carbon dioxide from, 15, 19* 38, 40,42, 43,49,

57,66 80, 142. 180,201 effcct on atmosphere, ix effect on atmospheric oxygen, ix, 52 methane from, 20 Freons. Sec chloroiluorocarbons (CFCs) fuzzy control techniques, in climate-impact studies, 222

C. builoidciy in deep-sea sediments, 240 galaxy, possibility of life in, 216 gas phase chemistry, aerosol effects on, Ml Gates, I^awrence, 25

general circulation models (GCMs), of climate, 81,

89,13^20^260*273, 274,276,2&1 GF.NKSIS models, vegetation-climate feedback in, 129. lifi

Geochemkal Ocean Sections Study (GEOSECS) surveys, 23

Gerzensee lake, ice core research on. 147. liS GISP L Str Greenland Ice Sheet Project (G1SP) GISP 2* vii, 252

climatc variability studies in, 2611 glacial cycles carbon dioxide changes in, 58 climatc mtnlcls for, 32 glacial-interglacia) climatic cycles ice wlumes in, 252 modck of, 112 sea level changes in, 152 glacial ocean circulation of, 12 physical and chemical properties of. 22Q >s ¿jactation global reversal of, 211 of prc-C^ambrian period, 201 glaciers, use in climate studies, 84-8 S Global Analysis, Interpretation and Modelling (GA1M) goals of, 183-4 task force of, 58. Global Analysis and Modeling Program,

Ki HP-proposed, 112 Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW), 287 global change, definitions of, 16 Global Change System for Analysis Research and

Training (START), 287 Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), 287

Global Energy and Water Cvcle Experiment

(GEWEX), 282,283,284 Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS), 285 global variations, of carbon dioxide, 4Q-42 global warming. 22, 52 anthropogenic, 201 carbon sinks and, 47* 186 climate surprises in, 250. 256.2£6 effects on humus, 72-73 effects on oceans, ¿Ix LL 262 impacts of, 142 offset options for, 1111 Goddard Institute for Space Studies global three-dimensional climate model of, 41 Goulder. I jwrence, 11H grasses, as C* plants, ±0 Grassl, I lartmut, 280

"great conveyor belt," global thcrmo-halinc circulation as, 150, 151 "Great Leapt* as coupled calculation, ill Great Salinity Anomaly, ¿11 greenhouse effect from human activities, 125 in palcoclimatcs, 199, 202, 207,211.215 warming from, 22. 85-86. <>0-92. 101, 142 greenhouse gases. Srr also carbon dioxide; methane; nitrous oxide anthropogenic effects on, 264, 285 in atmosphere, 1 2, 31 32.1115 build-up of, 66,85-86, 142, 273, 285 chemical reactions of, 116 17 climatic role of, ix, 22 -23, 31,57, 93, 177-8, 256,265

current lev els of, x ice core studies of. 265 in I »a\t Glacial Maximum, 1£5 pakontological levels of. xi reduction of, Ull warming effect of, 26,82 Greenland ice core studies on, xi, 148* 152. 154. 199.200.

242. 247. 257. 258. 261. 262. 263,221 palcoclimatc of, 248

sea level changes in, U1 Greenland Ice Core Project (GRIP), vii, xi, 242.

climatc variability studies in, 260. 262 Greenland Ice Sheet palcoclimatc effects of, 111 studies of, vii Greenland Ice Sheet Project (GISP), vii, 244. 252 green planet simulation, of climate, 52, 56 grid boxes, of general circulation models, 82

Intergovernmental Panel (cont.)g] Summary for Policymakers, 94, 96 validation of climatic models by, 92-93, 101 International Council for Scientific Unions

(ICSU), 280,282 International Geophysical and Biological

Programme (IGBP), xiv, 58, 117, 26^ 2&I GAIM of, 183-4

Task Force on Global Analysis of, 286 International Geophysical Year 1958/1959, ozone studies in, 10 intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) ozone entrainment by, 23 thunderstorms in, 24 Irminger Basin, glacial sediments in, 244, 245 iron aerosols of, 118 role in ocean carbon cycle, 115 iron cycle, in Earth System Models, 113 isoprcne, role in plant chemistry, 115 isotope analysis, of deep-sea sediments, 220 isotopic disequilibrium, in biosphere, 40

Japan, carbon dioxide disposal in, 77

Japan Polar Research Institute, ozone studies of, 6

Karl, Thomas, 95

Keith, D. W., climate studies of, 99-100 Kyoto Protocol, 66, 102, 104,142, 187, 273, 286, 287

Labrador current, 238, 240 lakes, climate effects on, 168 land sink, for carbon dioxide, 38-40, 42 land-use changes atmospheric effects of, 16, 24 effects on carbon flux, 49-50 effects on trace gases, 32, 38, 117, 180 I^angway, Chester C, Jr., as Oeschger collaborator, vii

Large-Scale Biosphere Project in Amazonia, website for, 286 Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), 119, 126, 128 carbon dioxide levels in, 176 climate model for, 123, 124, 131 continental changes in, 133 deep water circulation in, 231-2, 235 ice volumes in, 132, 135-6, 201 key features of, 184-6 residual ice sheets in, 164 sea surface salinity in, 221, 222, 223, 225 temperatures in, 258 Younger Dry as climatic reversal in, 200

Laurentide ice sheet, 240, 242, 244, 258

leaves oxygen isotopes in water of, 61 role in carbon cycle, 115 legumes, as C4 plants, 40 less-developed countries (LDCs), role in climate problems and studies, 102-3, 287

life possibility in galaxy, 216 survival in glacial periods, 215 lightning, as nitrogen oxide source, 24 Lindzen, Richard, 95 Little Ice Age, 200, 262 LMD models, vegetation-climate feedback in, 129,130

Lorius, Claude, viii

Louvain-la-Neuvc (LLN) climate model, 119, 122, 123,125, 128,129,133,137, 140,142, 240

sea-level change effects on, 131-3 LPJ Earth System Model, 182

MacCrackcn, Michael, 95

Manabe, Syukuro, 95

MAPSS Earth System Model, 182

marginal dollar, climate abatement and, 103

marine boundary layer (MBL), reactive halogen in,

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