Glimap

deep water circulation modeling by, 231 Earth surface modeling by, 127 sea surface salinity reconstruction by, 221-2,223 climate aerosol effects on, 25-31 anthropogenic effects on, xiii carbon dioxide role in, 1, 58 changes in. See climate changes computer simulation of, 83 future variations in, 256-70 Goddard three-dimensional model of, 43 greenhouse gas effects on, ix, xi human perspective of, 81-109 ice core studies of, viii impact studies on, 273-9 interaction with biosphere, 53 models of. See climate simulations palcontological, x, xiii, xiv, 260-2

climate (cortt.)

simulations of. See climate simulations terrcstial control of, 52 ■variability of, 26(1-2 warming of, xiii, 22 climate changes abrupt, 170, 257-60, 273-5, 279 adaptive-management studies of, 279 effects of, 15-16

environmental impacts of, 97-101 future of, 256-70

integrated assessment models of, 83, 97 policy implications of, 101-4 projections of, 97-101 "runaway," xii scientific opinions on, 97 smooth vs. abrupt, 273-5 surprises and irreversibility in, 94, 96, 106, 256

technological improvement and, 278 terrestrial biosphere and, 167-70, 176-95 win-win strategies for, 106-7 climate-chemistry feedbacks, Arctic ozone hole and,31-32 climate friction, 213

Climate Monitoring and Diagnostic laboratory (NOAA-CMDL), carbon dioxide studies of, 59

climate sensitivity, 90 evaluation of, 94

subjective probability estimations of, 95-97 climate sensitivity range, 85 expert opinions on, 95-97 climate signal, 86

climate simulations, x, xiv, 52, 54, 88-89, 123 coupled models for, 92, 2&I flux adjustment of, 92 in Holocene, 163-75 integrated assessment activities in, 94 probability assessment of, 95, 106 rolling reassessment of, 106 scientific consensus on, 95-97 sensitivity studies of, 105 time-dependent, 170 transient vs. equilibrium, 93-94 validation and tests of, 92-93, 105 Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR),

267»282, 283, 284 goals of, 285 CLIMBER as Earth System model, 182 vegetation-climate feedback in, 130 CLIVAR. See Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR)

CIONO2, stratospheric formation of, 31 CIO radicals, role in ozone destruction, 7-8 clouds. See also polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) albedo enhancement of, 28 change effects of, 16 effects on hydroxyl radical, 22, 26 in faint young Sun problem, 2205 feedback studies on, 284 ice formation in, 28 light backscattcring by, 25, 26 cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) effects of, xi, 26, 28 effects on actinic flux, 31 production of, 30 cloud droplets, mineral dust nuclcation of, 30 cloud droplet number concentrations (CDNC), role in rain formation, 28 coal reserves, 67

computer simulation, of climate, 83, 89 Conference of the Parties (COP), 103 (Conference on Gcosphere-Biosphere Interactions and Climate (1998) Oeschger's organization of, vii purpose of, ix, xiii topics of, x-xi Congo, ozone over, 24

conveyor belt, global thermo-haline circulation as,

150, 151,240, 260

cooking, tropical biomass use for, 24 coral fossils, as glacial evidence, 223 corn, as C* plant, 40

coupled biogeography-biogeochemistry models, of

Earth System, 182 coupled models for climate simulations, 92 trajectory of, 115 Q photosynthesis, 40 Cretaceous, climate changes in, xii Crutzen, Paul, x cryosphere, WCRP studies on, 282 cumulus parameterization, of general circulation models, 90

Dansgaard, Willi, as Oeschgcr collaborator, vii-viii

Dansgaard-Oeschger events, viii, 147, 152, 156, 199, 200, 242,244, 258 in Last Glacial Maximum, 185 Darw in (Australia), climate variations in, 44 deep water flow lines, of glacial ocean, 228-31 deforestation as carbon dioxide source, ix, 19, 42, 43, 49, 77,

78,176 ecosystem effects of, 181

effect on atmosphere, ix, 16, 39 effects on nitrogen oxides, 23 reduction of, 101 in Tropics, 21-22, 25, 32 déglaciation, dust flux demise in, 235 density, of glacial ocean, 225-8 desert world simulation, of climate, 55, 56 dcutcrHm, in glacial ice, 235, 259, 262 Dickinson, Robert, 95

dimethyl sulfide (DMS), marine, sulfate aerosols from, 28-29, 33 Dobson units, ozone loss measured by, 31 Dole effect, 62

Dowlatabadi, I ladi, climate studies of, 97

drought, patterns of, 24

dust ecosystem sources of, 179, 181 as iron source, 116 in Last Glacial Maximum, 185-6 in paleocontinental ice, 215-16 dynamical global vegetation models (DGVMs), 53, 54,62,116,176,182, 186-7

Earth long-term climate stability of, 203-19 total ice cover of, 201, 205, 212 Earth System multiple equilibria in, 149-51 nonlinearities in, 147-62 Earth System Models (ESMs), 62, 93, 94, 105, lli-95 tests on, 176 types of, 182-3 uses of, 181-2 Earth System Models of Intermediate Complexity

(EMICs), 182 EBM Sellers model, vegetation-climate feedback in, 129

ECHAM-3 model, vegetation-climate feedback in, 129

economy, climate change effects on, 99 ecosvstems in Earth System Models, 113 effects on climate and aerosols, 179 Eemian interglacial atmospheric carbon dioxide in, 12 climate variability in, 260 El Chichón, eruption effects of, 86 El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), 169 CLIYAR studies on, 283, 285 effects on climatc, xi, 59, 114, 170-1, 262,

emissions, reduction of, 106—7 energy, social cost pricing of, 101 energy-balance climatc model, 149, 213 energy balance model, vegetation-climate feedback in, 129

energy budget climate model, for Holoccnc, 165

energy consumption, in developing countries, 77,103

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), climate warming studies of, 97 Eocene, climate changes in, xii equilibrium asynchronous coupling (EAC), in studies of atmosphere-biosphere interactions,

183, 184

equilibrium models, of Earth System, 183 Eurasia, sea level changes in, 133 Eurasian ice sheet, paleoclimate effects of, 131 European Centre for Medium Range Weather

Forecasts (ECMWF), MM>1 European Centre Hamburg Atmospheric Model

(ECHAM), 52, 55 Eurosiberian Carbonflux project, website for, 286

cutrophication, env ironmental effects of, 16 évapotranspiration, biological controls of, 53, 55

factor separation method, use in climate models, 119

faint young Sun problem, 203-19 feedback processes of albedo temperature, 120 atmospheric regulation of, ix, x, xi, 9, 15-37 in ozone destruction, 7 role in environment, xiii, xiv, 188 fertilization, with fixed nitrogen, 72 "fingerprints," of climatic change, 93, 97 fire carbon monoxide release by, 178 trace gas emission from, 75, 180 First World Climate (Conference (Geneva, 1979), 280

flip-flop hypothesis, for ocean, 147-8 Florida, paleoclimate in, 242 flux adjustment, of climate simulations, 92 foraminifera boron in, 237

calcium carbonate shells of, 207, 229, 245 in glacial sea sediments, 223, 224-5, 227, 228, 232,238,249 forest recovery, as carbon sink, 47, 180 forests carbon dioxide circulation by, 75 destruction of. See deforestation

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