Info

V ariations of the number of total detritic grains, percent volcanic glass (Icelandic tracer), and dctrital carbonate (Laurcntidc tracer) in core ODP 6()9 (Bond and I.otti, 1995). HE indicates I leinrich events. Letters a-g indicate smaller detrital events in the sediment, coinciding ith the eold phase of D-O events recognized in the GRIP ice core. Figure 14.13. V ariations of the number of total detritic grains, percent volcanic glass (Icelandic tracer), and dctrital carbonate...

The Carbonatesilicate Cycle

Including calcium (Ca++) and bicarbonate (HCO7) ions, are carried by rivers down to the ocean, where certain organisms, such as plank tonic foraminifera, use them to make shells of calcium carbonate (CaCOj). W hen these organisms die, some of the calcium carbonate collects in sediments on the ocean floor. These carbonate sediments are carried away from the mid-ocean ridge axes by the process of seafloor spreading. At some plate boundaries, the seafloor is subducted and the carbonate sediments...

Information From The Past

With the Younger Dryas climatic reversal that occurred during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM)-to-Holocene transition (e.g., Broccker and Denton, 1989, and see Broecker, Chapter 5 in this volume). High-latitude foraminifcra-based sea surface salinity (SSS) reconstructions by Duplessy et al. (1991), and others subsequently, have indeed established that high-latitude Atlantic SSS was strongly depressed during glacial conditions in the regions where North Atlantic deep water (NADW) forms today (see...

Physical And Chemical Properties Of The Glacial Ocean 221

Paleoclimatc data were also the first to point to the ability of the Earth's climate system to switch abruptly between significantly different climatic modes. The coupling between the ocean, the atmosphere, and the ice is probably responsible for these variations. Because the atmosphere has a rather short time constant, the oceanic thermo-haline circulation variability is one major process that can be linked to long-term climatic changes, from decades to millennia. Geological data do not...

Landfills

MaTopwan. 3auLi*ineHHbiw aBTopcfctfM npaaoM The diversity of sources of methane, and their biological nature, results in a complex source pattern, something that makes it quite difficult to assemble an accurate source inventory There are a considerable number of different rice farming practices, for example, all of which result in substantially different amounts of methane emitted per amount of rice produced, or per hectare farmed. On the other hand, this diversity provides a chance for...

Hartmut Grassl

The World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) is the research component of the World Climate Programme (WCP). Soon after the launch of WCP at the First World Climate Conference in Geneva in 1979, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the International Council for Scientific Unions (now called International Council for Science) (ICSU) agreed in 1980 on cosponsorship of WCRP. In 1993, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO joined WMO and ICSU as the third cosponsor...

Ice Corf Records And Relevance Tor Climate 265

And Delmas, 1987 Dclmas ct al., 1992), allowing us to estimate the associated stratospheric loading and resulting changes in optical depth. Indeed, ice core data provide series of the three candidate external forcings for the past century (greenhouse gases, solar irradiance, and explosive volcanism) and are thus key to the attribution of climatic changes during the last millcnium. The fact that ice cores give unique and direct access to records of changes in atmospheric composition has played a...

Ozone Partial Pressure nbar

The figure on the left shows the decrease in ihe total ozone column over the Antarctic (I Oil Dobson units corresponds to a layer of ozone I mm thick as standard temperature and pressure at the earth surface). The right-hand diagram shows the altitude dependence of ozone loss between August and October 1987. Measurements by J. Far man and coworkers of the British Antarctic Survey (1985) and by D. Hofmann and coworkers (1989) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

Biosphere And Stratosphere Interaction

High concentrations of CIO radical and the simultaneous rapid ozone destruction occur in winter when the temperature becomes very cold. Measurements by J. G. Anderson and coworkers (1989) of Harvard University. April, when the destruction trend approached 1 per year. Ozone destruction took place in other seasons as well but at the lower rate of around 0.4 per year (Stolarski et al.T 1991). The declining trend during winter and spring has increased during the present decade over the...

Dedication to Hans Oeschger

Hans Oeschger was a professor emeritus of physics at the University of Bern, Switzerland, when he planned the Vatican Conference on Geosphere-Biosphere Interactions and Climate. Following his retirement in 1992 his health had its ups and downs, but his concern for the global climate and environment did not prevent him from pursuing this important theme. He did not spare himself, and many of his international colleagues were concerned about his health, when they noted his many travels and...

References

K., Yrmengaud, A,, and Genthon, C (199H), Atmospheric dust under glacial and intcrgiaciaJ conditions. Geophys. Res, Lett., 25*228I-22N4, Bacas tow, Rt B. (1976). Modulation of atmospheric carbon dioxide by the southern oscillation. Nature, 261,116-118. Bar nob, J, M., Raynaud, I)., Korotkeuch, Y. and Lorius, C. (1987). Vostok ice core provides 160,000-year record of atmospheric (X)> , Nature, 329, 408-414. Battle, M., Bender, L, Sowers, X, Tans, P. P., Butler, J H-, Elkins, J....

Ber78

Obliquity Last 150 Kyr

Figure 8.L Long-term variations of eccentricity, climatic precession, obliquity, and insolation at 65 N in June (Wm 2) from 2(M) kyr BP to 130 kyr AP (Berger, 1978), Figure 8.L Long-term variations of eccentricity, climatic precession, obliquity, and insolation at 65 N in June (Wm 2) from 2(M) kyr BP to 130 kyr AP (Berger, 1978), time the amplitude of obliquity is also reduced (obliquity going from 22.6 at 10 kyr AP to slightly less than 241 at 31 kyr AP). Because the daily insolation is mainly...

Glimap

Deep water circulation modeling by, 231 Earth surface modeling by, 127 sea surface salinity reconstruction by, 221-2,223 climate aerosol effects on, 25-31 anthropogenic effects on, xiii carbon dioxide role in, 1, 58 changes in. See climate changes computer simulation of, 83 future variations in, 256-70 Goddard three-dimensional model of, 43 greenhouse gas effects on, ix, xi human perspective of, 81-109 ice core studies of, viii impact studies on, 273-9 interaction with biosphere, 53 models of....

Biosphere Notes

Andrcae, M, 0, 1993 The influence of tropical hiomass burning on dimatc and the atmospheric environment, In R. S, Oremland, Kd Biogeochcmistry of Global Change Radiativcly Active Trace Gases, pp. 113-150, Chapman amp Hall, New York, NY. Andreac, 1. O. 1995 Climatic effects of changing atmospheric aerosol levels. In A, Henderson-Sellers, Ed. World Survey of Climatology, Vol. 16 Future Climates of the World, pp. 341-392. Elsevier, Amsterdam. Andreae, M. Q, Artaxo, P., Fischer, H., Fortuin, J,,...