Biosphere Interactions

Ice Corf Records And Relevance Tor Climate 265

And Delmas, 1987 Dclmas ct al., 1992), allowing us to estimate the associated stratospheric loading and resulting changes in optical depth. Indeed, ice core data provide series of the three candidate external forcings for the past century (greenhouse gases, solar irradiance, and explosive volcanism) and are thus key to the attribution of climatic changes during the last millcnium. The fact that ice cores give unique and direct access to records of changes in atmospheric composition has played a...

Will St Eft En

Nitrogen Cycle Peatlands

Developed countries no worries, mote1 I Transfer of technology 1 and expertise Developing countries serious problems Abrupt' Potentially large impacts, Climate Change adaptation not possible Figure 16.1. Smooch*' vs. abrupt climate change (as defined in the text) will have very different impacts on developed and developing count ricv Adaptation will likely not be an option if human perturbation* Co the climate system trigger abrupt changcs. Wc now know from icc corc records that there have...

References

K., Yrmengaud, A,, and Genthon, C (199H), Atmospheric dust under glacial and intcrgiaciaJ conditions. Geophys. Res, Lett., 25*228I-22N4, Bacas tow, Rt B. (1976). Modulation of atmospheric carbon dioxide by the southern oscillation. Nature, 261,116-118. Bar nob, J, M., Raynaud, I)., Korotkeuch, Y. and Lorius, C. (1987). Vostok ice core provides 160,000-year record of atmospheric (X)> , Nature, 329, 408-414. Battle, M., Bender, L, Sowers, X, Tans, P. P., Butler, J H-, Elkins, J....

Hartmut Grassl

The World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) is the research component of the World Climate Programme (WCP). Soon after the launch of WCP at the First World Climate Conference in Geneva in 1979, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the International Council for Scientific Unions (now called International Council for Science) (ICSU) agreed in 1980 on cosponsorship of WCRP. In 1993, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO joined WMO and ICSU as the third cosponsor...

Abstract

The structure and function of the terrestrial biosphere are closely coupled to the atmosphere through multiple interactions involving physical changes to the land surface (biogeophysical feedback) and changes in the radiatively active gas composition of the atmosphere (biogeochemical feedback). Human activities are forcing large and pervasive changes in these interactions, making it more important than ever to understand the natural** regulation of the atmosphere-terrestrial, biosphere-ocean...

Ozone Partial Pressure nbar

The figure on the left shows the decrease in ihe total ozone column over the Antarctic (I Oil Dobson units corresponds to a layer of ozone I mm thick as standard temperature and pressure at the earth surface). The right-hand diagram shows the altitude dependence of ozone loss between August and October 1987. Measurements by J. Far man and coworkers of the British Antarctic Survey (1985) and by D. Hofmann and coworkers (1989) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

Biosphere And Stratosphere Interaction

High concentrations of CIO radical and the simultaneous rapid ozone destruction occur in winter when the temperature becomes very cold. Measurements by J. G. Anderson and coworkers (1989) of Harvard University. April, when the destruction trend approached 1 per year. Ozone destruction took place in other seasons as well but at the lower rate of around 0.4 per year (Stolarski et al.T 1991). The declining trend during winter and spring has increased during the present decade over the...

The Carbonatesilicate Cycle

Biosphere Diagram Black And White

Including calcium (Ca++) and bicarbonate (HCO7) ions, are carried by rivers down to the ocean, where certain organisms, such as plank tonic foraminifera, use them to make shells of calcium carbonate (CaCOj). W hen these organisms die, some of the calcium carbonate collects in sediments on the ocean floor. These carbonate sediments are carried away from the mid-ocean ridge axes by the process of seafloor spreading. At some plate boundaries, the seafloor is subducted and the carbonate sediments...

Biosphere Notes

Andrcae, M, 0, 1993 The influence of tropical hiomass burning on dimatc and the atmospheric environment, In R. S, Oremland, Kd Biogeochcmistry of Global Change Radiativcly Active Trace Gases, pp. 113-150, Chapman amp Hall, New York, NY. Andreac, 1. O. 1995 Climatic effects of changing atmospheric aerosol levels. In A, Henderson-Sellers, Ed. World Survey of Climatology, Vol. 16 Future Climates of the World, pp. 341-392. Elsevier, Amsterdam. Andreae, M. Q, Artaxo, P., Fischer, H., Fortuin, J,,...

Emerged continental area at the LGM

North South Poles Interact

Increase in rhc size of the continents for each 5 latitudinal bands, from the South Pole to the North Pole, at the Last Glacial Maximum due to the lowering of the sea level by about 100 m, as simulated by the NSH model of Louvain-ia-Neuve (Dutrieux, 1997). See also color plate section. Figure 8.4. Increase in rhc size of the continents for each 5 latitudinal bands, from the South Pole to the North Pole, at the Last Glacial Maximum due to the lowering of the sea level by about 100 m,...

Dedication to Hans Oeschger

Hans Oeschger was a professor emeritus of physics at the University of Bern, Switzerland, when he planned the Vatican Conference on Geosphere-Biosphere Interactions and Climate. Following his retirement in 1992 his health had its ups and downs, but his concern for the global climate and environment did not prevent him from pursuing this important theme. He did not spare himself, and many of his international colleagues were concerned about his health, when they noted his many travels and...

Part Two The Human Perspective

6 Global Climate Change in the Human Perspective 83 PART THREE. MODELING THE EARTH'S SYSTEM 7 Earth System Models and the Global Biogeochemtcal Cycles 113 Maiepwan, 3aiuMmeHHbift asiopcKiiM npaBOM 8 The Role of CO , Sea Level, and Vegetation During the M ilankovitch-forced Glacial-Inter glacial Cycles 119 9 Nonl nearities in the Earth System The Ocean's Role 147 10 Simulations of the Climate of the Holocene Perspectives Gained wi th Models o f Different Complexity 163 11 Interactions of Climate...

Physical And Chemical Properties Of The Glacial Ocean 221

Paleoclimatc data were also the first to point to the ability of the Earth's climate system to switch abruptly between significantly different climatic modes. The coupling between the ocean, the atmosphere, and the ice is probably responsible for these variations. Because the atmosphere has a rather short time constant, the oceanic thermo-haline circulation variability is one major process that can be linked to long-term climatic changes, from decades to millennia. Geological data do not...

Information From The Past

With the Younger Dryas climatic reversal that occurred during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM)-to-Holocene transition (e.g., Broccker and Denton, 1989, and see Broecker, Chapter 5 in this volume). High-latitude foraminifcra-based sea surface salinity (SSS) reconstructions by Duplessy et al. (1991), and others subsequently, have indeed established that high-latitude Atlantic SSS was strongly depressed during glacial conditions in the regions where North Atlantic deep water (NADW) forms today (see...

R8 2 x CI 03 CIO

R15 Cl202 + hv 1 CI + 02(X < 350 nm) The second reaction implies that the ozone destruction rate depends on the square of the CIO radical concentration. If we also consider that the formation of chemically active chlorine (CI and CIO) by reaction R13 involves a reaction between two chlorine-containing species - ClONO and HC1 - we note that the rate of ozone decomposition could be proportional to between the second and fourth power of the stratospheric chlorine content. With this increasing by...