Ozone Partial Pressure nbar

The figure on the left shows the decrease in ihe total ozone column over the Antarctic (I Oil Dobson units corresponds to a layer of ozone I mm thick as standard temperature and pressure at the earth surface). The right-hand diagram shows the altitude dependence of ozone loss between August and October 1987. Measurements by J. Far man and coworkers of the British Antarctic Survey (1985) and by D. Hofmann and coworkers (1989) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

Biosphere And Stratosphere Interaction

High concentrations of CIO radical and the simultaneous rapid ozone destruction occur in winter when the temperature becomes very cold. Measurements by J. G. Anderson and coworkers (1989) of Harvard University. April, when the destruction trend approached 1 per year. Ozone destruction took place in other seasons as well but at the lower rate of around 0.4 per year (Stolarski et al.T 1991). The declining trend during winter and spring has increased during the present decade over the...

Info

Maiepwan, 3amnmeHHbiM aBTopcKUM npaBOM which at its maximum some twenty thousand years ago was about 5 C to 7 C colder than our current global climate, disappeared in what is, to nature, a relatively rapid period of about five to ten thousand years. Ihe average rate of temperature change from the Ice Age to the current 10,000-year period of relative climate stability, our so-called Holncene Interglacial, is about 1 C change for every one thousand years. Of course, there w ere more-rapid periods...

Dedication to Hans Oeschger

Hans Oeschger was a professor emeritus of physics at the University of Bern, Switzerland, when he planned the Vatican Conference on Geosphere-Biosphere Interactions and Climate. Following his retirement in 1992 his health had its ups and downs, but his concern for the global climate and environment did not prevent him from pursuing this important theme. He did not spare himself, and many of his international colleagues were concerned about his health, when they noted his many travels and...

References

K., Yrmengaud, A,, and Genthon, C (199H), Atmospheric dust under glacial and intcrgiaciaJ conditions. Geophys. Res, Lett., 25*228I-22N4, Bacas tow, Rt B. (1976). Modulation of atmospheric carbon dioxide by the southern oscillation. Nature, 261,116-118. Bar nob, J, M., Raynaud, I)., Korotkeuch, Y. and Lorius, C. (1987). Vostok ice core provides 160,000-year record of atmospheric (X)> , Nature, 329, 408-414. Battle, M., Bender, L, Sowers, X, Tans, P. P., Butler, J H-, Elkins, J....

Ber78

Obliquity Last 150 Kyr

Figure 8.L Long-term variations of eccentricity, climatic precession, obliquity, and insolation at 65 N in June (Wm 2) from 2(M) kyr BP to 130 kyr AP (Berger, 1978), Figure 8.L Long-term variations of eccentricity, climatic precession, obliquity, and insolation at 65 N in June (Wm 2) from 2(M) kyr BP to 130 kyr AP (Berger, 1978), time the amplitude of obliquity is also reduced (obliquity going from 22.6 at 10 kyr AP to slightly less than 241 at 31 kyr AP). Because the daily insolation is mainly...

Glimap

Deep water circulation modeling by, 231 Earth surface modeling by, 127 sea surface salinity reconstruction by, 221-2,223 climate aerosol effects on, 25-31 anthropogenic effects on, xiii carbon dioxide role in, 1, 58 changes in. See climate changes computer simulation of, 83 future variations in, 256-70 Goddard three-dimensional model of, 43 greenhouse gas effects on, ix, xi human perspective of, 81-109 ice core studies of, viii impact studies on, 273-9 interaction with biosphere, 53 models of....

Biosphere Notes

Andrcae, M, 0, 1993 The influence of tropical hiomass burning on dimatc and the atmospheric environment, In R. S, Oremland, Kd Biogeochcmistry of Global Change Radiativcly Active Trace Gases, pp. 113-150, Chapman amp Hall, New York, NY. Andreac, 1. O. 1995 Climatic effects of changing atmospheric aerosol levels. In A, Henderson-Sellers, Ed. World Survey of Climatology, Vol. 16 Future Climates of the World, pp. 341-392. Elsevier, Amsterdam. Andreae, M. Q, Artaxo, P., Fischer, H., Fortuin, J,,...