Comparison Of The Methods Of Measurement

Whether an area burned or did not burn is the fundamental manner of measuring fire occurrence. Historical records elaborate on this measure by providing the area over which the fires did burn. Additional knowledge of the area over which fires did not burn then allows the fire rotation to be calculated. Similarly, whether a fire did or did not burn is also at the root of fire scar and sedimentary evidence of fire occurrence. The MFI, although not defined this way earlier, can be calculated as...

Abbreviations and Acronyms

AATSR Advanced along track scanning radiometer ACT Australian Capital Territory AFWA Air Force Weather Agency (USA) AFWIN Air Force Weather Information Network (AFWA) AMIP Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Program AMS American Meteorological Society ATSR Along-track scanning radiometer (ERS) AVHRR Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (NOAA) CART Classification and regression tree CCM Community climate model (NCAR) CIRA Cooperative Institute for Research on the Atmosphere (CSU) CIRES...

Area Burned Reconstruction and Measurement A Comparison of Methods

Department of Geography, State University of New York, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, USA Abstract Knowledge of temporal changes in the area burned by wildfires is required to understand their influence on global climate change. This paper reviews the primary methods of reconstructing and measuring area burned. The area burned by wildfires is typically reconstructed using historical records, satellite imagery, tree-ring records and sediment records. These methods are described and compared in...

Biomass Burning A Global Phenomenon

Biomass burning, the burning of living and dead vegetation for landclearing and landuse change, has been identified as a significant source of gases and particulates to the regional and global atmosphere (Crutzen et al., 1979 Seiler and Crutzen, 1980 Crutzen and Andreae, 1990 Levine et al., 1995). The bulk of the world's biomass burning occurs in the tropics - in the tropical forests of South America and Southeast Asia and in the savannas of Africa and South America. The majority of biomass...

Biomass Burning and Climate An Introduction

University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada The interactions between biomass burning and climate have been brought into focus by a number of recent events. Firstly, the Framework Convention on Climate Change and, more recently, the Kyoto Protocol, have drawn the attention of policy makers and others to the importance of biomass burning in relation to atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Secondly, the use of prescribed fires has become a major management tool in some countries with...

Burned not burned

The most basic method of describing area burned is the binary measure of burned or not burned. This method is implicit in the use of satellite imagery that can only detect whether a pixel did or did not burn. For example, if fire is detected in an AVHRR GAC pixel, it means that some, but not necessarily all, of the ca. pixel-area has burned (Eva and Lambin, 1998). As a result, if fires are commonly detected within spatially isolated pixels, the area of the pixel should not be measured as the...

Charcoal analysis

Charcoal was identified as black, completely opaque, angular fragments (Swain 1973 Clark 1988). The number of charcoal particles larger than 10 um (or > 75p,m2) on pollen slides was counted and the regression equation proposed by Tinner et al. (1998) was used to estimate the charcoal area concentration (mm2 cm3) from the particle number concentration (charcoal particles cm3). According to Tinner et al. (1998) this approach can be used to reconstruct regional fires within a radius of 20-50 km...

Chronology

Twenty-five terrestrial macro-fossils from Lago di Origlio were dated using AMS-techniques (Tinner et al. 1999). The age-depth curves of both study sites were smoothed by locally-weighted regression (lowess) and were calibrated as AD BC cal. using the Calib Version 3.03c program (Stuiver and Reimer 1993). The results were combined with 7 210Pb dating results (Tinner et al. 1998) to calculate charcoal area (mm2 cm2 yr1) and pollen influx (pollen grains Because of the calibration difficulties of...

Climate and Vegetation as Driving Factors in Global Fire Activity

EDWARD DWYER1, JEAN-MARIE GR GOIRE1, JOS M.C. PEREIRA2 1Global Vegetation Monitoring Unit, Space Applications Institute, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Ispra, Italy Laboratory for Remote Sensing and Geographical Analysis, Department of Forestry, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Lisbon, Portugal Abstract Global active fire distributions have been determined for a 12 month period from daily acquired, low spatial resolution satellite imagery. These distributions have been grouped into...

Climate data

The global network of weather stations has extensive coverage in the more developed regions of the world, but very large gaps exist in less populated and less technologically developed regions. Global measured climate parameters coinciding with the fire data were therefore unavailable. We used instead the gridded, global climate database of the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA). This has been constructed using weather station data of temperature, precipitation and...

Coal Replacement Carbon Emission Scenarios

India has almost 129 Mha of degraded land, of which at least 50 is highly degraded and unsuitable for afforestation. Moreover, because of the high cost of raising plantations and then maintaining them, some available land cannot be considered for an energy plantation programme. The current availability of various categories of land for afforestation in India is therefore taken as about 65 Mha (Fig. 5). If reforestation and afforestation is undertaken on degraded forests and other available land...

Combined Effects Of Fire And Climate Change On The Boreal Forest Carbon Budget

While it is believed that overall the boreal forests presently serves as a net sink of atmospheric carbon, as shown in this chapter and its companion (Kasischke et al., 1999a), individual forest stands act alternately as atmospheric carbon sources and sinks because of the influence of fire. Stand-replacement fires are the norm in most boreal regions, resulting in the death and partial burning (oxidation) of most overstory trees, complete burning of understory vegetation, and partial burning of...

Conclusions

This study has confirmed the significance of biomass burning for the distribution of tropospheric chemical species. Biomass burning is estimated to represent approximately 49, 8, 21, and 10 of the surface emissions of CO, and non-methane hydrocarbons, respectively. It contributes to 20 of the globally averaged surface concentration and total amount of CO, with values of about 35 over the biomass burning regions of South America and Africa. In the case of nitrogen oxides, an average of 13 of the...

Correlation Analysis

Frequency histograms (not shown) of the regional total area-burned seasonal time series (Figure 3) indicate non-normal bimodal data distributions. This is because of the monthly (not shown) and fire season series being typically represented by a large number of low burned areas, and a smaller number of large burned areas (Figure 3). To address the problem of non-normality in the distributions, the total area-burned data are analysed using the non-parametric Spearman rank correlation, which...

Data Analysis

3.1 Northern Hemisphere 500 hPa Height Composites Figure 5a-5b shows the May-August 500 hPa height anomaly composites for the five highest and five lowest total area-burned seasons from 1953 to 1995 for the western and west-central regions, respectively. These extremes represent approximately the upper and lower 10 of the area-burned data population. Analysis of extremes is important because it is the extremely high area-burned seasons that have become more numerous and frequent as indicated by...

Data

Area burned by wildland fire is defined as all land on which wildfires occur, including forest, cutover forest, grasslands, scrub, etc. (Flannigan and Harrington, 1988). For this study, the area analysed consists of all Canadian provinces and territories with the exception of the four eastern Atlantic provinces (Figure 1). Area-burned data are available for the four eastern provinces however, the very low fire activity there, relative to the other provinces, excluded their use in this type of...

Description Of The Firescape Model

FIRESCAPE is a landscape-level, fire-regime simulation model. It was developed and implemented for the ACT region, Australia (Cary 1997b Cary, 1998). The simulation landscape is approximately 900,000 hectares and is represented by an array of square 1 hectare pixels. Fire regimes are simulated by igniting and spreading individual fires which, through time, result in the development of a landscape-level fire regime. In the model, fire ignitions result from cloud-to-ground lightning strikes and...

Discussion And Conclusions

Bioclimatic conditions as described by mean annual biotemperature, length of dry period and mean annual precipitation discriminate between different types of fire activity. These results are in keeping with those of Krusel et al. (1993) and Antonovsky et al. (1989). Working on wildfire activity in south-eastern Australia, Krusel et al. (1993) identified, in descending order of merit, maximum daily temperature, days since rain and a drought index as the best discriminators between different...

Discussion

The goals of this paper were to review the different methods by which area burned is reconstructed compare them in terms of the spatial and temporal resolutions and extents of their observations and describe and compare the common methods by which area burned and fire frequency are measured. While some methods of reconstructing area burned are uniquely applicable over certain scales of observation, all of the methods overlap between the spatial resolution and extent of 1 to 1,000,000 km2, and...

Editorial Advisory Board

Allen-Diaz, Department ESPM-Ecosystem Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, CA, U.S.A. R.S. Bradley, Department of Geosciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, U.S.A. W. Cramer, Department of Global Change and Natural Systems, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany. H.F. Diaz, NOAA ERL CDC, Boulder, CO, U.S.A. S. Erkman, Institute for Communication and Analysis of Science and Technology -ICAST, Geneva, Switzerland. M. Lal, Centre for Atmospheric...

Effects Of Fire On Soil Temperature And Moisture

In mid-August 1998, a series of burned and adjacent unburned black spruce (Picea mariana Mill. B.S.P.) forest stands were visited in interior Alaska. These stands were located near Fairbanks, Delta Junction, and Tok, Alaska, within or near fires that occurred in 1972, 1987, 1990, and 1994. At the 1990 fire site, the unburned and burned stand were separated by a distance of approximately one kilometre, whereas at all the other sites this distance was less than 100 meters. The site examined in...

Effects Of Landuse

To show how differences in landuse may affect biomass emissions, several test cases were derived for EPM. The cases consider typical fuel loading, fuel condition, and ambient weather in broadcast slash, stand replacement, and understory burns. Fuel loading data were selected from measurements in Amazonian primary tropical forest (Kauffman et al. 1994), western Washington Douglas fir rain forest (Hobbs et al. 1996), eastern Oregon ponderosa pine (Ottmar et al., in press), and cerrado sensu...

Estimates Of Burned Biomass And Emissions

Monthly burned biomass, and gas and aerosol emissions were assessed using both data sets and by applying Equation 1. Annual mean estimates for November 1992-October 1993 based on the GFP data set amount to 1360.45 Tg of burned biomass, 608 TgC as C02, 60 TgC as CO, 3.7 TgC as CH4, 4.5 TgN as and 9.36 Tg of aerosols The availability of a range of variability for biomass density enabled assignment of a minimummaximum range combined with the above average values (Table 5). Table 5. Annual...

Estimating Carbon Release During Fires

Seiler and Crutzen (1980) postulated the basic equation used to estimate carbon released during biomass burning where A is the total area burned during a specified period of time (in hectares), typically on an annual basis, B is the biomass density (t ha1) exposed to fire, fc is the carbon fraction of this biomass, and P is the fraction of the biomass that is burned or oxidised during the fire. The initial studies of carbon release from biomass burning by Seiler and Crutzen (1980) only...

Fire behaviour analysis

Fire behaviour analysis is the activity that attempts to predict what the fire will do. This activity includes estimates of timing, consumption, intensity, location, and other characteristics of the fire. The fire behaviour analyst needs local and state scale meteorological observations and forecasts, terrain information, and detailed information concerning local vegetation. Weather forecasts with lead times of 5 days, 3 days, 2 days, 1 day, 12 hours, 6 hours, 3 hours, and 1 hour will be...

Forest Fires And Other Forms Of Biomass Burning

Biomass burning is a complicated issue as it occurs as a result of both natural and anthropogenic processes. Forest fires, for example, can be started either by lightning or by humans. Increasingly, forest fires are being recognised as a natural feature of many forests, with Oliver and Larson (1996) considering fires to be the most important form of disturbance to forests. However, it is often very difficult to discern which of today's fire regimes are the result of wholly natural processes...

Global Implications

In their landmark study of carbon releases from fires in different biomes, Seiler and Crutzen (1980) estimated that only 0.023 Gt C yr1 were being released during biomass burning in the boreal forest. It is now generally agreed that this estimate is low because of (1) underestimation of the annual area burned in the boreal forest and, (2) the approach did not take into account the large amounts of ground-layer biomass consumed by fires. Although the results presented in this chapter demonstrate...

Historical data

Fire data information collected by the Forest Service since 1900 (in standardised form after 1930) helped re-construct a fire history for southern Switzerland in this century. Fire data, incorporating date, time, duration, ignition, area burned, fire type, forest habitat, and other variables, were organised in a relational database (Conedera et al. 1996). The significance of these factors was then verified by comparing the results with charcoal concentrations in recent sediments from Lago di...

Implications Of Changed Fire Regimes

FIRESCAPE predicts what might be called 'natural fire regimes'. They arise from the occurrence of lightning-ignited fires that spread and extinguish in the absence of human intervention, largely because the model was originally designed to investigate patterns of fire regimes that may arise from topographic complexity. According to the dendrochronological data of Banks (1982), the fire frequency in the sub-alpine forests of the study region have changed considerably as a result of anthropogenic...

Interactions Between Biomass Burning and Climate Conclusions Drawn from the Workshop

INNES1, MARTIN BENISTON2 and MICHEL VERSTRAETE3 1 University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada 2University of Fribourg, Switzerland 3Joint Research Center, CEC, Ispra, Italy Abstract An international workshop with the title Biomass burning and its interrelationships with the climate system was held in Wengen, Switzerland, from 28 September to 2 October 1998. The workshop was attended by some 50 scientists from 12 countries. It was co-sponsored by the University of Fribourg, ENAMORS...

Introduction

Over the last few decades, much attention has focused on identifying the terrestrial sources and sinks of atmospheric carbon (Tans et al., 1992 Fan et al., 1998). This issue is driven by the fact that over the past four decades the rise in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide has much been much lower than the amounts of carbon being released into the atmosphere through the use of fossil fuels, the clearing of tropical forests, and the burning of biomass and other materials. The rate...

Lake sediment cores

Parallel cores were taken 1 m apart with a Streif modification of the Livingstone piston corer (Merkt & Streif 1970) from the deepest point of Lago di Origlio (416 m a.s.l.). This lake is located near Lugano, and has a surface area of about 8 ha and a hydrological catchment area of about 1.5 km2 (Fig. 1). The water depth was 5.35 m during coring. The sediments older than 14500 BP (afforestation) consist of silt afterwards silty gyttja (minero-organic sediments of lacustrine origin, mainly...

Managing Smoke in United States Wildlands and Forests A Challenge for Science and Regulations

RIEBAU2 and RICHARD W. FISHER3 1Cooperative Institute for Research on the Atmosphere, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA 2 Wildlife, Fisheries, Watershed and Air Research, USDA, Forest Service, Washington, USA Air & Watershed Management, USDA, Forest Service, Fort Collins, USA Abstract In past decades the Forest Service and other land management agencies in the United States developed the image in the national popular imagination of forest fires...

Mean Fire Interval

MFI decreases as the area from which the fire evidence is collected increases (Arno and Peterson, 1983). For example, assume that there are two trees tree one has fire scars in the years 1800, 1810, 1860 and 1900, and tree two has fire scars in the years 1800, 1820, 1840 and 1900. Each tree has an MFI of 33.3 years. If we calculate the MFI using a composite of the fire-scar years (that is, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1840, 1860 and 1900 cf. Arno and Sneck, 1977), then the MFI is 20 years. As the MFI is...

Methods For Reconstructing Burned Areas

There are four general methods by which area burned is reconstructed historical records, satellite imagery, tree-rings, and sedimentary records. Each method contains a variety of data types. Each method will be considered in terms of the manner by which it records or evidences fires, and the typical spatial- and temporal- resolutions and extents of its records. I refer to the resolution of the data as the smallest unit of time or space over which fires are recorded. In the spatial context this...

Methods

Three FIRESCAPE simulations were performed. These involved simulating spatial patterns in fire frequency using i) current climate (Current climate) current climate with daily temperatures increased by 2 C (+ Temperature) and current climate with daily temperatures increased by 2 C and summer daily rainfall increased by 20 (+ Temperature + Rainfall). Temperature has a number of important effects on fire spread rates. Firstly, the empirical models of fire spread are somewhat sensitive to changes...

Model Simulations

The biomass burning emissions associated with the 1997 Indonesian fires are introduced in MOZART on the basis of the CO2 emissions estimated by Levine et al (1998). Liew et al. (1998) estimated a total burned area of 45,600 km2 (4.5 million hectares) for the Sumatra and Kalimantan regions for the period of August 1997 to December 1997. Levine et al. (1998) estimated a release of 85 TgC of C02 if the area burned comprised tropical forest. If the biomass burned comprised 70 forest fires and 30...

Modelling Emissions

The Emission Production Model (EPM) provides a time-sequence of heat release rate, biomass consumption, and emission production from any fires in wildland fuelbeds (Sandberg and Peterson 1984). The principal purpose of EPM is to anticipate and manage air quality problems and it is a principal source-strength estimator for a number of smoke dispersion models (Ferguson and Hardy 1994, Breyfogle and Ferguson 1996). EPM has been in widespread use for planning and screening prescribed fires in the...

Modelling the Effect of Landuse Changes on Global Biomass Emissions

SANDBERG and ROGER OTTMAR Forestry Sciences Laboratory, 4043 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, USA Abstract The rate and magnitude of emissions from prescribed burns and wildfires in wildland areas throughout the world are related to biomass consumption, which is controlled by total biomass, fuel moisture, fuel distribution (fuel size and arrangement), and ignition pattern. Consequently, landuse practices, which can affect many of these components, play a crucial role in...

Patterns Of Groundlayer Biomass Consumption

As discussed above, boreal forests are unique because a significant fraction of the biomass present in the ground layer can and does burn during fires. The components of the ground layer biomass include horizontal layers of litter, lichen, living and dead moss, fibric soil and humic soil. The combined depth of these layers often is 30 to 40 cm or deeper, with the levels of stored carbon reaching 120 to 150 t ha1. One of the major unresolved issues in estimating carbon release from boreal forest...

Permitting

Permitting is the activity of receiving or providing approval from state or local regulators to conduct a burn based on air quality impact assessments. Most states require dispersion modelling studies to show that impacts will not violate air quality standards, although the specific requirements vary. In many instances, the Simple Approach Smoke Estimation Model1 (SASEM) is the tool of choice for permitting fires (Riebau et al., 1988). Although permit requirements vary greatly between states,...

Planning

Two activities are key to a successful prescribed fire planning process. The first is seasonal scheduling. Seasonal scheduling is the activity of identifying a window of time when a burn will occur during a given burn season. Scheduling will allow for better resource utilization, thus maximising the number of burns that can be completed during a year. Seasonal scheduling is mostly resource dependent. Schedulers need project management tools to effectively allocate resources. The project...

Policy implications of fire and biomass burning

Biomass burning is an important factor contributing to reduced visibility along the east coast of the USA, and has significant implications for legislation protecting visibility. Biomass burning is also likely to be important when calculating national carbon budgets. Because of increased fire activity, the strength of the North American boreal forest as a carbon sink has been reduced on the order 0.03 Gt per year over the past two decades. This has been caused by a steady increase since 1970 in...

References

O. 1991, Biomass burning Its history, use, and distribution and its impact on environmental quality and global climate. Global Biomass Burning Atmospheric, Climatic, and Biospheric Implications (J. S. Levine, Ed.). The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 3-21. Andreae, M. O., E. V. Browell, M. Garstang, G. L. Gregory, R. C. Harriss, G. F. Hill, D. J. Jacob, M. C. Pereira, G. W. Sachse, A. W. Setzer, P. L. Silva Dias, R. W. Talbot, A. L. Torres and S.C. Wofsy 1998, Biomass burning...

Results

The four bioclimatic variables used in the analysis are effective precipitation, i.e. the difference between total annual precipitation and potential evapotranspiration and months of negative effective precipitation or period of moisture deficit (dry period). Figure 2 shows the average number of fire pixels detected in a 0.5 by 0.5 cell as a function of these variables. At a biotemperature of 19 C, there is a steep increase in the number of fire pixels detected. Above 20 C, the fire number...

Several Areas Were Identified As Deserving Further Attention

Mechanisms which encourage interdisciplinary should be encouraged. This would include the organisation of further workshops along the lines of the Wengen model, with a specific goal of embracing the socio-economic research community. There is also a need to foster mechanisms for direct and regular interactions between scientists and decision makers from the local community to the government levels. Greater exchange of scientists should occur, particularly from the countries most affected by...

Source emissions models

Experimental efforts have been conducted to collect information about smoke emissions. Models have been developed with the capacity to estimate the nature and amount of specific emissions under a variety of burning conditions. While by no means completely solved, the quality of models that predict the physical and chemical nature and amounts of emissions from different types of fire in different ecosystems is reasonable and possibly good enough for introduction into dispersion and transport...

Study region

Southern Switzerland is a region encompassing 4000 km2 and is located south of the Alps (Figure 1). 48 of the area is covered by forest. In the lower hilly region (< 900 m a.s.l.) the dominant tree is Castanea sativa. This species was introduced into the southern Alps by the Romans nearly 2000 years ago (Zoller 1960 Tinner and Conedera 1995). Other important woodland trees found at these elevations are Quercus petraea, Q. pubescens, Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus excelsior, Betula pendula, and...

Summary

This represents the first study of this kind to identify and understand the links between atmospheric circulation anomalies in the mid-troposphere and wildland fire severity in Canada on large spatial and temporal scales. Statistically significant relationships have been demonstrated. There appears to be increases in both area burned, especially in north-west and west-central Canada, and 500 hPa heights in key geographical areas. Further research is required at finer spatial and temporal...

Summary And Conclusion

Current GCMs typically absorb too little solar radiation in the atmosphere, as shown in a comparison with a comprehensive set of co-located surface and satellite observations. The lack of atmospheric absorption is particularly strong at low latitudes. The present study has demonstrated that the largest gaps between model-calculated and observed atmospheric absorption coincide in time and space with the areas of most active biomass burning. Thus, there is an obvious connection between the lack...

Table of contents

Biomass burning and climate an introduction 1 Global Biomass Burning A Case Study of the Gaseous and 15 Particulate Emissions Released to the Atmosphere During the 1997 Fires in Kalimantan and Sumatra, Indonesia Joel S. Levine Modelling the Effect of Landuse Changes on Global Biomass 33 Sue A. Ferguson, David V. Sandberg and Roger Ottmar Direct effects of fire on the boreal forest carbon budge 51 Eric S. Kasischke, Brian J. Stocks, Kathy O'Neill, Nancy H.F. French and Laura L. Bourgeau-Chavez...

The Impact of Biomass Burning on the Global Budgeti of Ozone and Ozone Precursors

CLAIRE GRANIER1'2'3, JEAN-FRAN OIS M LLER4 and GUY BRASSEUR5 1Service d'A ronomie CNRS, Paris, France CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory, Boulder, CO, USA 4Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Brussels, Belgium 5'National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, USA Abstract Biomass burning contributes significantly to the emissions of atmospheric trace gases such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons. For example, current evaluations...

Treerings

The annual growth-rings in trees may provide two types of evidence that can be used to reconstruct fire occurrence fire-scars on the tree-trunk, and total tree-age. a) Fire-scars may be created on the base of tree trunks by ground fires. The ground fire must be hot and persistent enough at a portion of the base of a tree to heat and kill the cambial layer that underlies the bark, but not of such an intensity as to destroy the whole tree (e.g. Gutsell and Johnson, 1996). The hotter portion of...

Two Sample Comparisons

Table 1 presents the locations of the significantly correlated continental grid points( a 0.01 level) as identified in Figure 6b for the west-central Canada region and their anomalous 500 hPa geopotential height values (in dams) that are in common to both the five highest total area-burned fire seasons (Figure 5b(i)) and the five lowest total area-burned seasons (Figure 5b(ii)). The west-central region is examined here because it is normally a high area-burned region (Figure 2) and also shows...

Using Epm For Global Estimates Of Biomass Emissions

The locally derived model, EPM, can be used to estimate global biomass emissions and gain a more complete understanding of the impact of wildland fires. For example, Mack et al. (1996) estimated global biomass emissions by developing a global fire model that estimates burning efficiencies from fine dead fuel moisture and by introducing some ability to model the effects of climate and landuse changes over time. Components that significantly affect the rate and magnitude of emissions, however,...

Wind field analysis

Wind field analysis is the activity of depicting local or regional airflow patterns. The wind field analysis can be from current meteorological conditions or from predicted conditions, if available. To perform a wind field analysis one needs meteorological wind data, an analysis program and a display mechanism. To obtain a current observation-based wind field analysis, one needs meteorological observations, a real-time data acquisition system, a computer code capable of incorporating these data...

Sustainable Forestry as a Source of Bioenergy for Fossil Fuel Substitution

Centre for Atmospheric Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi, India Abstract In tropical countries, anthropogenic pressures have led to deforestation and degradation of forests and pasture lands. Realising the large potential and also the importance of producing biomass for energy as a substitute for fossil fuel, using degraded land for plantation forestry has been emphasised in recent years and could become one of the most important counter-agents to deforestation. In India, the...

Existing Smoke Management Situation In The

The formal management of smoke from wildfire and prescribed natural fire has a long history in the federal land management agencies. It remains a component of most fire planning activities. Substantial fractions of the particulate in wild land smoke are in the size ranges that are regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Ambient atmospheric concentrations of particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5) and particulate matter less than 10 micrometers in diameter...

Burned Area And Burned Biomass By Vegetation Types

Koffi et al. (1996) identified the seasonality of burning activity in the African continent using active fire maps derived from AVHRR-GAC imagery. Assuming the onset of the burning season to be in November, when the dry period begins in the northern hemisphere, a season is considered to run from November to October of the following year. In view of the spatial distribution of vegetation fires and the ecosystems affected by them, three main periods can be identified (see also Figure 4)...

Anthropogenic Biomass Burning

Anthropogenic biomass burning is far more important than natural fires, which are responsible for only 10 of total biomass burning (Levine, this volume). Human-initiated fires can take many forms, including the burning of agricultural wastes, domestic fuelwood, biofuels, prescribed burning and destructive burning. Emphasis in this book has concentrated on forest fires (both natural and anthropogenic), with only a single paper devoted to industrial biofuels and domestic fuels. While much...

Energy Needs Of India

The power sector in India is facing serious problems, as the gap between demand and supply has been increasing annually by about 8 . The shortage of power during the Ninth Five Year Plan period (1997-2002) in India is estimated to be about 55000 MW (MegaWatt). Coal is one of the primary energy resources, accounting for about 67 of the total commercial energy consumption in the country. Thermal power plants at present account for 73 of the total power generation in India hydroelectric power...