Introduction

The protection of the world climate or components thereof has become the object of international agreements since the end of the seventies. The most important agreements to that extent are the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, 1979' and its Protocols2, as well as the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, 19855 and its Protocol (Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 1987).4 However, only the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 1992'' (Framework Convention) together with the Kyoto Protocol6 represent a comprehensive approach to international protection of the climate.

The Framework Convention, together with the Kyoto Protocol, constitutes an international effort to protect the global climate for present and future generations7 taking also into consideration the effects any climate change may have on islands, on low-lying coastal areas, and on

1 international Environmental Law: Multilateral Agreements 979: 84.

- Protocol Concerning the Control of Emissions of Mitogen Oxide or their Transboundary Fluxes, 1988, International Environmental Law: Multilateral Agreements 979: 84 C; Protocol Concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds or their Transboundary Fluxes, 1991, ibidem 84 D; Protocol on Further Reduction of Sulphur Emissions, 1994, ibidem 84 E.

'International Environmental Law: Multilateral Agreements 985: 22.

"International Environmental Law: Multilateral Agreements 985: 22 A.

'International Environmental Law: Multilateral Agreements 992: 35.

' See in this respect the resolution of the General Assembly of the United Nations 46/169 of 19 December 1991.

increasing desertification. The two international agreements for the first time establish legally binding limits for industrialized countries on emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases.8

The Framework Convention and the Kyoto Protocol were discussed controversially and accordingly many of its provisions have to be understood as reflecting a compromise. The whole regime should not be considered as constituting a purely environmental system but rather as one addressing environmental concerns by taking into account social and economic developments in an integrated manner.9

I will deal with commitments states parties have entered into under the newly established regime of climate protection, and which implementation measures and which measures for a control concerning compliance are provided for.

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