The activity is a measure of the tendency of a substance to react relative to its reacting tendency in the standard state. Here we relate activity to c/c° for ideal solutions. For ideal gases and ideal solvents, the activity approaches P/P° and X, respectively. Although c° is taken to be 1.0 m, Equation (8) works best when c is much less than 1.0 m.
One may combine the appropriate expressions for G for equilibria involving reactants in different phases to obtain a general expression, which relates the equilibrium constant to the
Here cnh3 is the concentration of undissociated ammonia in water. The equilibrium constant for this class of equilibria is often defined in terms of a Henry's Law constant, Kn.
The AG0 value for NH3(aq) should be for dilute aqueous solutions. Note that Kh has units.
The solubility equilibrium for CaC03 (calcite) <-> Ca2+(aq) + CO^aq) is defined by
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