Samuel S Butcher and Sharon E Anthony

This chapter applies the physical chemistry taught in the first year of undergraduate chemistry to chemical problems in the natural environment and introduces key chemical concepts to use and keep in mind for the rest of this book. The material in this chapter is especially important to consider when utilizing the modeling techniques presented in Chapter 4. There are two principal chemical concepts we will cover that are important for studying the natural environment. The first is...

C

The steady-state flux from the atmosphere to the ocean across the layer is given by Fick's First Law This treatment may be compared with that given in Chapter 4. The top of the stagnant film is assumed to have a gas concentration in equilibrium with the overlying air (i.e., Cg KHPg). The unknown values are the flux and the thickness of the diffusive layer z. The thickness z has been determined by analyses of isotopes (14C and 222Rn) that can be used to obtain the flux (Broecker and Peng, 1974...

Daniel A Jaffe

In most natural systems available or fixed nitrogen is usually the limiting factor in plant growth. This realization led to the invention and massive use of nitrogen fertilizers during the 20th century and ever increasing crop yields per acre of farmed land. Without this use of nitrogenous fertilizers, the Earth could not support its current population of six billion people (Smil, 1997). At the same time, the widespread use of fossil fuels releases not only carbon dioxide, but nitrogen oxides...

Biogeochemical Cycles

Biogeochemical cycles are the backbone of Earth system science and are the major focus of this book. In this part, we will use the background provided in Part One, along with the information on the major reservoirs provided in Part Two to tell a cohesive story about five biogeochemical cycles those of carbon (Chapter 11), nitrogen (Chapter 12), sulfur (Chapter 13), phosphorus (Chapter 14), and the trace metals (Chapter 15). The goal of each one of these chapters is to provide an overview of the...

Info

Fig. 11-22 (a) Interannual fluctuations of the growth rate of atmospheric C02 determined from the average of the seasonally adjusted records of the Mauna Loa and South Pole stations (see Fig. 11-3). (Data from Keeling et al, 1995.) The dashed line is the growth rate that would result from an atmospheric balance which takes into account the documented C02 inputs from fossil fuel and changes in land use together with the uptake rates computed by an ocean and a terrestrial model, (b) Anomalous,...