Figure 15.3 (a) Pathways of fixed carbon leading to trophic and bioconstructional outputs of framework, sediments, fleshy plants, consumers and organic detritus. PAR signifies "photosynthetically active radiation". Arrows (sec also Figure 15.4) signify biological groups and processes as follows: I, carbon fixed by symbiotic zoox-anthellae and coralline algae; 2, carbon fixed as small skeletal elements of for-aminifera, calcareous algae and other non-framework builders; 3, carbon fixed as edible plants; 4, limestone fragmented to sands and sills by bio-eroders; 5, losses of those events, factors or processes that determine the pathways and fates of carbon within a reef and among its various habitats and zones. Biodiversity loss has functional consequences if it contributes to any of the manifestations of degradation listed above.

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