Isbn 0471956015

Typeset in 10/12pt Times by Acorn Bookwork, Salisbury, Wiltshire. Printed and bound in Great Britain by Biddies Ltd, Guildford. Surrey.

This book is printed on acid-free paper responsibly manufactured from sustainable forestation, for which at least two trees are planted for each one used for paper production.

International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU)

Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE)

SCOPE is one of a number of committees established by a non-govern-mental scientific organization, the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). The membership of ICSU includes representatives of 94 academies of science, 23 scientific unions and 30 scientific associates. ICSU has established 26 interdisciplinary bodies to bring together activities which include the interests of several unions.

SCOPE was established by ICSU in 1969 as one such interdisciplinary body. Its attention and scientific programme are directed to existing and potential environmental issues either global or shared by several nations which are in urgent need of interdisciplinary syntheses.

The mandate of SCOPE is to assemble, review, and assess the information available on human-made environmental changes and the effects of these changcs on people; to assess and evaluate the methodologies of measurement of environmental parameters; to provide an intelligence service on current research; and by the recruitment of the best available scientific information and constructive thinking to establish itself as a corpus of informed advice for the benefit of centres of fundamental research and of organizations and agencies operationally engaged in studies of the environment. It acts at the interface between the science and decision-making spheres, providing advisors, policy-planners and decision-makers with analytical tools to promote sound management and policy practices.

At present, representatives of 38 member countries and 22 international unions and scientific committees participate in the work of SCOPE, with scientists from around the world contributing their time and expertise to the projects in the scientific programme. SCOPE is governed by a General Assembly, which meets every three years. Between such meetings its activities are directed by the Executive Committee.

R.E. MUNN Editor-in-Chief SCOPE Publications

Executive Director: V. Plocq-Fichelet Secretariat: 51 boulevard de Montmorency 75016 Paris, France

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