1993). If continued, they are expectcd to result in extinctions of many species (Reid 1992), in part because of the small geographical ranges of many tropical species. For example, many species of cloud forest plants in Latin America are endemic to isolated sites smaller than 10 km' (Gentry 1992). Among the birds of South American tropical forests, 440 species (25% of the total) have ranges of less than 50 000 km2. In contrast, only eight species (2% of the total) of birds in the United States and Canada have such restricted ranges (Terborgh and Winter 1980). However, researchers do not agree on the extent of probable losses and how they might be reduced by management practices in tropical forests (Lugo 1988b; Lugo ei al. 1993). Whatever the extent of loss of species in tropical forests, reductions in species richness can be expected to influence functional properties of tropica! forest ecosystems in the following ways.
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