Contents

Contributors xix

1 The SCOPE Ecosystem Functioning of Biodiversity Program I

H.A. Mooney, J. Hall Cushman. Ernesto Medina, Osvaldo E. Sala and E.D. Schuhe i.l Background 1

I.2 The SCOPE Program 2

1.3 The Global Biodiversity Assessment 4

1.4 Program Publications 5

2 Arctic and Alpine Biodiversity: Its Patterns, Causes and

Ecosystem Consequences 7

F. Stuart Chapin III and Christian Körner

2.1 The Arctic and Alpine Biota 8

2.2 Past, Present and Future Changes in Biodiversity I)

2.3 Effects of Biodiversity on Ecosystem Processes 12 2.3.5 Nutrient cycling and energy flow 13

2.3.2 Specialization in resource capture 18

2.3.3 Nutrient inputs and losses 20

2.3.4 Energy inputs and losses 22

2.3.5 Landscape controls over inputs and losses 23

2.3.6 Maintenance of ecosystem integrity 23

2.3.7 Insurance 25

2.4 Conclusions 26 References 27

3 Biodiversity and Ecosystem Processes in Boreal Regions 33

John Pastor, David./. Mladenoff', Yrjö Haila, John Bryant and Serge Payette

3.1 Introduction 33

3.2 Natural Diversity of Boreal Regions 36

3.2.1 Tree species 36

3.2.2 Mammals 40

3.2.3 Birds 42

3.2.4 Insects 44

3.2.5 Population cycles and biodiversity 45

3.2.6 Landscapes and disturbances 46

3.2.7 Synthesis of ecosystem consequences of the natural patterns of biodiversity 48

3.3 Human-induced Changes and their Effects on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function 51

3.3.1 Climate and atmosphere 51

3.3.2 Resource management 53

3.4 Research Needs 55

3.4.1 Long-term surveys 55

3.4.2 Experiments 56

3.4.3 Models of boreal forests 58

3.5 Summary 59 References 59

4 Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function of Temperate Deciduous Broad-leaved Forests 71 E.-D. Schulze, F.A. Bazzaz, K.J. Nadelhoffer, T. Koike and

S. Takatsuki

4A Introduction 71

4.2 Biodiversity in Temperate Deciduous Forest 73

4.3 Linking Biodiversity and Ecosystem Properties 81

4.4 Impact of Biodiversity on Ecosystem Processes 83

4.4.1 Effects on forest productivity 83

4.4.2 Effects on nutrient cycling 84

4.4.3 Effects on biodiversity on ecosystem water relations 85

4.4.4 Effects of biodiversity on forest resilience 88

4.5 Effects of Land-use Conversions and Management on

Ecosystem Functions 91

4.5.1 Conversion of broad-leaved forest into coniferous plantation 91

4.5.2 Conversion of broad-leaved forest into grassland and agriculture 92

4.5.3 Old field reafforestation 92

4.5.4 Fragmentation and effects of forest management 93

4.5.5 Deletion and invasion 93

4.6 Conclusions 93 References 94

5 Ecosystem Function of Biodiversity in Arid Ecosystems 99

L.F. Huenneke und I. Noble

5.1 Introduction 99

5.2 Characterization of Biodiversity in Arid Lands 100

5.3 Biodiversity and Ecosystem Processes 103

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