A

LARGE ( TOP ) CARNIVORES

( Game Fish, Fish Eating Birds )

sequential use of the different mangrove habitats by different species (seasonal programming). Although common species appear in fringe and riverine mangroves, there are different peaks of abundance, regulated by climatic changes, which control the biological and physical characteristics of the two habitats (Yânez-Arancibia et al. 1988, 1993). Thus the dominant species (or keystone species) act as controllers of the structure and function of the whole macroconsumer community, while the physical variability and mangrove productivity modulate their species diversity. The seasonal nature of these processes sccure the recruitment and functional species diversity of estuarine nekton communities {Yânez-Arancibia et al. 1993).

An interactive relationship is also widely acknowledged between coastal mangrove forests and proximal coral reefs with respect to fish migration (Odum et al. 1982; Ogden and GladfeKer 1983; Gilmore and Snedakei 1993; Sedberry and Carter 1993). Several studies present lists of fishes either known or suspected to occur in both habitats (Voss et al. 1969; Odum et al 1982; Thayer et al. 1987; Gilmore and Snedaker 1993; Sedberry and Carter 1993). In some eases the overlap is substantial. In the US Virgin Islands, Olsen et al. (1973) "found 74% to 93% overlap in the fish species composition of fringing coral reefs and shallow mangrove-fringed occanic bays" (Odum et al. 1982). However, few studies have attempted quantitatively to document the specific cooperative roles these two habitats serve during the

Tcitcslrial Insccis

Tcitcslrial Insccis

Figure 13.7 (and opposite) Conceptual diagram describing the fate of mangrove leaf litter in the food chain of art estuary in south Florida {from Odum 1971)

Eggs

Young

Young

Arius melanopus] Spawning adulLs-5%c

\Bairdiella chrysoura]

Spawning adults

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