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NGOA Buyers Club

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Drilling from Sea Ice 1975

The success of DSDP Leg 28 in the Ross Sea had shown the potential for offshore sediments around Antarctica providing a direct record of the glacial history on land. However, ice flow lines and lithologies of pebbles in cores from the sites in eastern Ross Sea indicated that sediments deposited there were derived from West Antarctica (Fig. 3.1 Barrett, 1975). To find a record of the much larger and possibly older East Antarctic Ice Sheet, sites were needed in the western Ross Sea adjacent to the Victoria Land coast. A seismic survey in late 1974 showed that the thick sedimentary strata of the Victoria Land Basin did indeed extend close to the East Antarctic coast (Wong and Christoffel, 1981) and provided the justification for DVDP-15, the first Antarctic offshore hole to be drilled from the fast sea ice. Experience in moving equipment 70 km across the sea ice from McMurdo Station on Ross Island to the Marble Point airstrip on the Victoria Land coast had been gained from fuel train...

Ice Free Areas and Terrestrial Habitats

Several coastal areas show evidence of isostatic uplift, which has produced raised beaches and inland cliffs and, sometimes, freshwater or brackish small lakes. The surface of these periglacial environments is characterised by scattered erratic boulders and suites of glacial till and unsorted rock rubble. In general, moraines are rare and limited in size compared to those in the Alps or other mid-latitude regions. On the contrary, sediment cores from continental shelves around Antarctica show a widespread occurrence of glacio-marine deposits (Anderson JB 1991 Barrett et al. 1991).

Advances in the 1990s

The 1990s saw the publication of several major reviews on the state of knowledge of Antarctic climate history, notably symposium volumes by Kennett and Warnke (1992, 1993), ANTOSTRAT monographs on the Ross Sea (Cooper, this volume) and in support of ODP drilling, three chapters in Tingey's (1991) monograph on the geology of Antarctica (Anderson, 1991 Denton et al., 1991 McKelvey, 1991) and the review of sedimentation on the Antarctic continental shelf by Hambrey et al. (1992). By now, the broad chronological framework had been established through drilling in McMurdo Sound (CIROS-1, Barrett, 1989) and in Prydz Bay (Barron, Larsen et al., 1989) on opposite sides of the continent. However, neither the earliest Oligocene onset of glaciation nor the middle Miocene transition had been sampled by drilling on the continental shelf, and progress was hampered by a lack of chronological tools comparable with those used to date deep-sea sediments (e.g. microfossil datums based on abundant rapidly...

Inferences on past icesheets and environmental change

The long-term record of environmental change at high latitudes is held mainly in deep-sea sediments and large submarine fans. For example, an important indicator of the initiation of continental-scale glaciation to sea level at the beginning of the Cenozoic Ice Age is the first occurrence of coarse-grained iceberg-rafted debris within fine-grained abyssal muds thus, major ice-sheet growth began about 35-40 Ma in Antarctica, 7 Ma in Greenland and about 2Ma in Fennoscandinavia (e.g. Jansen & Sj0holm, 1991 Larsen et al., 1994 Barrett, 1996). Similarly, the variability in grain size of debris in finely laminated drift sheets on high-latitude margins demonstrates the changing velocity and direction of major ocean-current systems over glacial-interglacial intervals (e.g. Pudsey, 1992). Such changes are important to global-scale transfers of mass and energy in the Earth system.

Rice Cultivars Show Differences in Endophytic nifgene Expression by Azoarcus spp

In order to visualize bacterial gene expression in the plant, we used transcriptional fusions of target genes such as nifH, one of the structural genes for the nitrogenase complex reducing N2 to ammonia, with the reporter gene gfp (encoding the jellyfish green fluorescent protein) or gus (encoding p-glucuronidase). Infection studies using Azoarcus sp. BH72 on rice seedlings in gnotobiotic culture revealed, that bacterial nifH gfp is expressed at high levels inside the roots (Reinhold-Hurek, Hurek Since nifH gene expression in Azoarcus sp. BH72 is similarly regulated in response to O2 and ammonium as the nitrogenase activity is (Hurek et al. 1994), the reporter gene studies demonstrate that the rice root apoplast may provide a suitable microhabitat for endophytic nitrogen fixation of Azoarcus sp. BH72. This is also the case for the host plant from which this strain was originally isolated, Kallar grass (Reinhold et al. 1986). It was shown by in situ hybridization studies that...

Box 55 Pastoralist coping strategies in northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia

African pastoralism has evolved in adaptation to harsh environments with very high spatial and temporal variability of rainfall (Ellis, 1995). Several recent studies (Ndikumana et al., 2000 Hendy and Morton, 2001 Oba, 2001 McPeakand Barrett, 2001 Morton, 2006) have focussed on the coping strategies used by pastoralists during recent droughts in northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia, and the longer-term adaptations that underlie them

Potential Of The Antarctic Margins For Hydrates Formation

Extensive scientific seismic exploration surveys have accumulated considerable information to define the geological setting of most of the circum-Antarctic basins (Mclver, 1975 Ivanhoe, 1980 Mitchell & Tinker, 1980 Cameron, 1981 Behrendt, 1983b Aleyeva & Kucheruk, 1985 Davey, 1985 Ivanov, 1985 St. John, 1984 Elliot, 1988 Cook & Davey, 1990 Collen & Barrett, 1990 Anderson et al., 1990, among others).

Box 69 Landforms Of Erosion And Deposition Associated With Coldbased Glaciers

Source Atkins, C.B., Barrett, P.J. and Hicock, S.R. (2002) Cold glaciers erode and deposit evidence from Allan Hills, Antarctica. Geology, 30, 659-62. Photograph C. Atkins Source Atkins, C.B., Barrett, P.J. and Hicock, S.R. (2002) Cold glaciers erode and deposit evidence from Allan Hills, Antarctica. Geology, 30, 659-62. Photograph C. Atkins

Engaging Developing Countries Alternate Approaches

Myriad approaches have been proposed officially by nations, such as Brazil (Brazilian Ministry of Science and Technology, 2000), or by various researchers (Barrett, 2003 Cooper, 1998 Edmonds & Wise, 1997 Global Commons Institute, 1996 Heller & Shukla, 2003 McKibbin & Wilcoxen, 2002 Muller, 1999 Nordhaus, 2001 Schelling, 2002 Victor, 2001). These proposals are diverse in terms of approach, measures, and mechanisms. Two broad trends emerge among the proposals one is results oriented and the other is process- or conduct-oriented. A brief discussion of these two types of proposals for engaging developing countries in mitigation actions follows.

Toward Improved Theories

Cloud-resolving models (CRMs) have evolved as one of the main tools for studying the links between key processes pertinent to studying cloud-related feedbacks (e.g., Browning, 1993 Grabowski, 2000). As such, these models may be viewed as an essential tool for articulating the underlying theories of cloud feedbacks. These models continue to improve and are now being adopted more widely in a variety of cloud and precipitation research activities. CRMs are also being coupled experimentally ways into global models to serve as an explicit form of cloud parameterization, thereby overcoming the problematic separation between resolved cloudiness and unresolved convection (Randall et al., in press).

The Marine Record of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet

The pioneer of Antarctic drilling was the DSDP in 1973 (Hayes et al., 1975). Following that, four distinct phases of drilling have taken place in the Ross Sea region, in sedimentary basins under the direct influence of East Antarctica, by rigs mounted on the fast-ice that rings the southern part of the Ross Sea just north of the Ross Ice Shelf (see Chapter 3 for further details). These include the Dry Valley Drilling Project (DVDP) in 1970-1975 (McGinnis, 1981), the McMurdo Sound Sediment and Tectonic Studies (MSSTS) in 1979 (Barrett, 1986), the Cenozoic Investigations in the Western Ross Sea (CIROS) in 1984 and 1986 (Barrett, 1989 Barrett et al., 1992) and the multinational CRP in 1997-1999 (Cape Roberts Science Team, 1998, 1999, 2000 Hambrey et al., 1998 Barrett et al., 2000, 2001). These efforts are continuing through ANDRILL (Antarctic geological drilling) programme, which demonstrated ability to recover high quality marine and glacimarine sedimentary drill cores from high...

Concluding Remarks

We define sustainability in energetic terms in which primary productivity of the total landscape is in balance with community maintenance (i.e., P R 1). To achieve such a landscape sustainability, the rural autotrophic landscape (P R) must balance the heterotrophic urban-suburban landscape (P R). Biotic and cultural diversity must be maintained within these systems to protect and or conserve regulatory feedback mechanisms (Barrett et al., 1997). Because it is a difficult task to determine optimal land use, the development of appropriate management strategies at the agro-urban level will require the cooperation of diverse fields of study. The political, social, artistic, and economic components must become integrated with ecological theory in order to optimize land-use planning and, consequently, determine the landscape mosaic for the 21st century (Barrett and Peles, 1994). The integration of the ecological, cultural, and historical spheres of knowledge should...

Sea Level Rise and Challenges to Existing Infrastructure

James Hansen considers sea level rise as the big global issue that will transcend all others in the coming century.19 Even if the East Antarctic Ice Sheet is not destabilized, the steady melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet together with the perhaps sudden melting of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet holds the potential for some 12 meters (40 feet) of sea level rise.20 The melting of the East Antarctic shelf would add approximately 25 meters (80 feet) this would mark, in the Antarctic research scholar Peter Barrett's words, the end of civilization as we know it. 21 Even without a melting of the East Antarctic shelf, civilization would be experiencing an inexorable encroachment of seawater over decades and centuries.

Glacial Variability from the Continental Margin Geological Record

Continuous sedimentary records of Late Pliocene-Pleistocene (last 2.5myr) glacial variability are generally lacking on the Antarctic continental shelf (defined as the glacially, over-deepened sea floor above the 1,000m isobath, Fig. 11.1A). This is because (1) ice grounding during Quaternary ice sheet expansions onto the shelf has produced significant hiatuses, and (2) the 'riser-less' rotary coring systems employed by the ODP, and its predecessors, usually result in poor core recovery (

Processbased Evaluation of Largescale Models to Gain Confidence in Cloud Feedback Determination

Cloud-climate feedbacks can be simulated with general circulation models (GCMs). To gain confidence in the results from these simulations, the reliability of the physics of climate models (e.g., the representation of turbulence, convection, aerosols, and clouds) must be improved (Illingworth and Bony, this volume). For this purpose, a well-recognized methodology, which forms the basis of the GEWEX cloud system studies, can be employed the physics of climate models within a single-column framework are compared with observations from field experiments and or LES or CRM simulations driven by observed forcings (Browning et al. 1993 Randall et al. 2003). The resulting parameterizations are then evaluated in a full 3-D GCM with global datasets to assess whether an improvement of cloud representation has been achieved. Such an approach can be very powerful in pointing out deficiencies in model parameterizations and in improving model parameterizations.

Complexity Uncertainty And Their Role In Shaping Management Decisions

Fenced area of SCI (Sterner and Barrett 1991) and complete eradication on Santa Rosa Island (1990-1992) by the National Park Service (Lombardo and Faulkner 2000), in 1990 TNC decided not to pursue an islandwide pig eradication program for an indefinite period of time. Consequently, pigs continued to threaten rare plant populations and rooting was severe and extensive in years when their numbers were high. The continued presence of sheep on the east end of SCI made ongoing hunts and fence repair a regular activity (Van Driesche and Van Driesche 2000). Fennel was spreading and non-native annual grasses and forbs dominated the herbaceous layer over a large proportion of the island, resulting in displacement of native plants, including some rare endemic species. These situations resulted in the bulk of the management effort by TNC in the 1990s being focused on phased, long-term studies of the pigs, fennel, and non-native annual plants (Brenton and Klinger 1994, Klinger 1997, Klinger and...

Individual Indicators

Launched in 1999, the Dow Jones Sustainability Indices (DJSIs) are the first global indices tracking the financial performance of the leading sustainability-driven companies worldwide. The Dow Jones STOXX sustainability indices consist of a pan-European and a Eurozone index the Dow Jones STOXX sustainability index (DJSI STOXX) and the Dow Jones EURO STOXX sustainability index (DJSI EURO STOXX). For both of these indices a composite and a specialized index are available, with the latter excluding companies that generate revenue from alcohol, tobacco, gambling, armaments, or firearms. See .

Problematic Societynature Relations Before The Modern

This variation, also known as neolithic time lags is explored by Jared Diamond, The Third Chimpanzee The Evolution and Future of the Human Animal, and in Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel The Fates of Human Societies. 27. Alfred Crosby, Ecological Imperialism The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900-1900 (Melbourne and Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 1986), Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel The Fates of Human Societies.

Early Agriculture And Civilization

Another major advantage of the Fertile Crescent region was that it was the natural home to many types of wild animals that proved easy to domesticate. As Jared Diamond noted in Guns, Germs, and Steel, many more types of mammals exist than can easily be domesticated. Some are by nature too wild or skittish or solitary, and some are simply too small to be of much use. The Fertile Crescent was again

Process Chemical Removal

Paint application generates wastes as well as paint manufacturing. Paint application wastes include empty paint containers, spent cleaning and stripping solutions, and paint overspray. Buying paint in containers of a size suitable for the application can reduce unused paint wastes. Segregating non-hazardous from hazardous waste streams is also important. Paint overspray can be reduced through operator training and proper handling of spray guns. Preventive maintenance of equipment and avoidance of reject paint applications can significantly reduce the wastes generated from stripping and reworking a job. Use of dry painting techniques such as powder coating is also a promising way of reducing wastes.

Reference Of G N Agrios In Case Of Soil Solarization

Asami DK, Hong UJ, Barrett DM, Mitchell AE (2003) Comparison of the total phenolic and ascorbic acid content of freeze-dried and air-dried marionberry, strawberry, and corn grown using conventional, organic, and sustainable agricultural practices. J Agric Food Chem 51 1237-1241 a review of methods. Agric Ecosyst Environ 107 1-19 Peacock AD, Mullen MD, Ringelberg DB, Tyler DD, Hedrick DB, Gale PM, White DC (2001) Soil microbial community responses to dairy manure or ammonium nitrate applications. Soil Biol Biochem 33 1011-1019 Peters RD, Sturz AV, Carter MA, Sanderson JB (2003) Developing disease-suppressive soils

Early Modern Fur Trade

From the earliest days of European settlement in North America, the fur trade was one of the main reasons for westward expansion. For a long time, the colonists simply traded their goods for furs collected by Amerindians. As skilled hunters and suppliers of pelts, the Amerindians were sought after as trading partners and thus were exposed to white culture. In exchange for their goods, the Amerindians received European products, both practical, such as iron tools and utensils, and decorative, such as bright-colored cloth and beads. They also received firearms and liquor, both of which had an enormous impact on Indian lifeways. A second and devastating effect of the fur trade with white settlers was the outbreak of European diseases among the Indian population. A third effect was the long-term ecological disruption of the food chain by the depletion of fur-bearing mammals. And finally, the fur trade brought European traders, trappers, and hunters on to Indian lands. Then came the...

Ecocide And Modern Warfare

Deforestation, erosion, dried-up water sources, and flooding have increased drastically since the war ended. The primary cause of this water-related havoc is the decrease in Vietnam's forest cover from 44 per cent of the total land area in 1943 to only 24 per cent 40 years later. Between 100,000 and 200,000 tons of topsoil per hectare wash down swollen rivers to the sea each year. Deforestation is continuing in post-war Vietnam as surviving forests are felled to rebuild 10 million homes, schools, hospitals, roads, and irrigation systems. This inexorable pressure is shrinking the forests the country needs for long-term sustainability at a rate of 494,000 acres a year. With more than two-fifths of southern Vietnam's once-verdant countryside a post-war wasteland, unusable for either agriculture or forestry, a report by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources argues that much of this ecological damage can never be repaired. Even more ominous, a report by...

Domestication of halophytes

Australia to provide fodder for sheep (Barrett-Lennard et al., 2003). Although these plants will withstand salt concentrations of more than seawater salinity in the root zone (Aslam et al., 1986), their optimal growth in the field occurs more in the 'moderately saline' to 'highly saline' range (ECe values 4-16 dS m E.G. Barrett-Lennard and M. Altman, unpublished results, 2008). Recent surveys suggest that more than 245,000 ha of salinized agricultural land are now managed in farming systems based around the use of these plants (Trewin, 2002).

The Influence of Dissolved Oxygen on the Nitrification Rate

Dissolved Oxygen Nitrification

In almost all treatment systems, oxygen is also required to oxidize other materials than ammonia present in the waste water. This, therefore, often raises the total oxygen demand in a nitrifying plant. No inhibition no increase in rate of ammonia oxidation Knowles, Downing & Barrett (1965) Most mathematical models for biological growth take into account only one substrate, such as the Monod model, since experimental studies are usually performed with all other nutrients in excess. But Stenstnam and Poduska (1980) used a double substrate-limiting kinetic expression to describe the combined effect of dissolved oxygen and ammonia-nitrogen on the growth rate, as shown in the following equation. The equation is a modified form of the Monod single substrate model. SN Ammonia concentration Ksn Half saturation constant for ammonia nitrogen

The Kinetic Expressions for the Nitrification Process

Knowles, Downing and Barrett (1965) and Downing (1968), were among the first to attempt to quantify nitrifying bacteria in waste water treatment plants. They all used the Monod Model of population dynamics proposed by Monod in 1942, which is similar to the Michalis-Menten relationship for enzyme reactions. Table 3.4) to determine the appropriate equation. From the initial ammonia-nitrogen concentration and the contact time studies, the nitrification process was shown to follow a zero-order reaction. When the reaction is directly proportional to the substrate concentration then the reaction can be considered as first order and the rate of reaction would be directly governed by the ambient ammonia concentration. Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter are both sensitive to their own and each others substrate. Tables 3.5 and 3.6 show that wide ranges of ammonia and nitrite ion concentrations can be oxidized by the nitrifiers. Different conditions can account for the apparent discrepancies. Normal...

Adapting to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses Through Crop Breeding

In Chapter 6, Mullan and Barrett-Lennard explain that climate change is expected to reduce water availability in general making the use of low-quality water resources more common. Water-stressed hydrological basins already affect approximately 1.5-2.0 billion people (Bates et al., 2008), a figure expected to increase substantially leading to problems of soil salinity and sodicity. Climate change will also bring inundation in low-lying landscapes associated with increased runoff from tropical storms while sea level rise will increase levels of salinity, waterlogging and inundation in coastal regions. The authors go on to explain that soil salinity affects plant growth and survival because ions (mainly Na+ and Cl-) increase in the soil solution, causing osmotic stress, while their accumulation in plant tissue impairs metabolism. Waterlogging leads to the displacement of air from the soil pores, leading to hypoxia (O2 deficiency, which is especially detrimental to root growth and...

Atmospheric Shock Waves

I was thrown to the ground about three sajenes about 23 feet, or 7 m away from the porch and for a moment I lost consciousness. . . . The crash was followed by noise like stones falling from the sky, or guns firing. The earth trembled, and when I lay on the ground I covered my head because I was afraid that stones might hit it.

Linkages Between Biodiversity And Sustainability

Turner et al. (1995) stressed that there exists a three-way interaction of biodiversity, ecosystem processes, and landscape dynamics at greater scales. Sustainable agricultural practices leading to increased crop and genetic diversity have resulted in increased agroecosystem stability (Cleveland, 1993). For example, increasing crop diversity benefits agriculture by reducing insect pests (Altieri et al., 1983). Other sustainable agricultural practices, such as conservation tillage, are known to increase habitat diversity, wildlife diversity, and numbers of beneficial insect species (Barrett, 1992 McLaughlin and Mineau, 1995). Agrolandscapes should also be managed to increase species diversity within landscape patches and to increase and or to conserve genetic material among landscape patches (Barrett and Bohlen, 1991). In recent years, there has been increased emphasis on the connectivity and integration of the agricultural landscape with the urban landscape (see Lockeretz, 1988,...

Geomorphology and Depositional Systems

Sandwich Technique Photography

During glacial maxima, fjords are dominantly under erosional or non-depositional regimes, and sediment deposited during the glacial advance through the fjord as well as any deposits from previous cycles may be eroded out, perhaps down to bedrock (e.g. Andrews, 1987, 1990 Boulton, 1990 Powell, 1991). The degree of erosion, however, may depend on the glacial regime sediment appears to be preserved from several glacial episodes in sub-polar (Andrews et al., 1987, 1990) and polar fjords (e.g. McKelvey, 1981 Powell, 1981b Barrett and Hambrey, 1992). When glaciers do erode almost all previously deposited sediment down to bedrock, large volumes of that sediment may be excavated. For example, in Glacier Bay, Alaska, much of the fjord system appears to have been filled with sediment, including outwash with buried trees and lacustrine deposits, up to about 200 m above present sea level after retreat from the Last Glacial Maximum (McKenzie and Goldthwait, 1971 Goodwin, 1988). During an advance...

Basins Of The Ross

Geophysical research in the Ross Sea shows that thick sedimentary sequences are present over large areas (Houtz and Davey, 1973 Wong and Christoffel, 1981 Davey et al., 1982, 1983 Hinz and Block, 1983 Sato et al. 1984 Cooper et al., 1987). Drillhole data from the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Leg 28 (Hayes et al., 1975a, b), McMurdo Sound Sediment and Tectonic Studies (MSSTS-1) drillhole (Harwood, 1986) and Cenozoic Investigations of Ross Sea (CIROS-l) drillhole (Barrett, 1987) show that the sediments which underlie the Ross Sea are up to Oligocene in age with older rocks being found only in McMurdo Sound as erratics (Webb, 1983). The deeper sediments in the Ross Sea basins are probably at least Early Tertiary in age and possibly as old as Late Cretaceous (Houtz and Davey, 1973 Davey etal., 1982 Hinz and Block, 1983). Cooper etal. (1987) interpreted an older sedimentary sequence in the western Ross Sea as being as old as Upper Palaeozoic in age. The MSSTS-1 drillhole, sited on the...

Pre Quaternary glaciations

The early development and build-up of the glaciers took place during the late Tertiary. The initial glacier formation may have been caused by tectonic uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, the Himalayas, and the western Cordillera in North America (e.g. Ruddiman et al, 1989). The development history of the Antarctic ice sheet is a matter for debate. Offshore sediments have been interpreted to indicate glaciation during the last 40 million years (Hambrey et al, 1989, 1992), while others have suggested glacier formation 5-10 million years ago (e.g. Drewry, 1978). The Antarctic ice sheet has fluctuated since its initial formation, and some scientists have even suggested that for short periods it may have melted away (e.g. Barrett et al., 1992). This view has been challenged, for example by Denton et al. (1993), presenting geomorphological, geochronological and palaeoclimatological evidence indicating that

Remotesensing Applications

AVHRR data are recorded and archived daily within the Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre (BMRC). A compositing pathway has been established using these data. To highlight changes in the monthly maximum value composite NDVI between sequential months, the Maximum Value Composite Differential (MVCD) has been developed (Tuddenham et al., 1994 Tuddenham and Le Marshall, 1996). The MVCD is based on the difference between two images recorded at approximately two-month intervals, with a log stretch to enhance the subtle difference in the NDVI signal that has occurred over that time. The changes may involve either a browning or greening of the vegetation cover during the two-month period. This can be useful to identify whether a season is atypical in terms of the timing of either seedling emergence or herbage drying off. More information can be found at the Web sites for the Bureau of Meteorology and Environment Australia .

Emissions Trading Takes

Proposals for emissions trading were made as a means to respond to climate change as early as 1989, in a paper by Michael Grubb25 and subsequently picked up by others.26 These are schemes where actors (countries in international systems, or companies in national ones) are allocated permits to emit GHG emissions, and they must either stay within these limits or buy extra permits from other actors who find it easier to reduce their own emissions and thus have surplus permits to sell. The trajectory of emissions trading from the original proposal to its realisation in the Kyoto Protocol encapsulates many of the big economic changes going on at that time. For Grubb and those of many who took the idea up, like Scott Barrett at the London

Comments on climate engineering in a broader context

There are several major challenges in obtaining deep reductions in CO2 emissions. For the world to cut CO2 emissions deeply, nearly all actors would need to nearly totally eliminate their CO2 emissions. However, the burning of fossil fuel produces immediate benefits to the user of the energy thereby attained. By contrast, the climate costs of that fossil fuel burning will be borne broadly throughout the world and primarily by future generations. The fundamental political challenge of CO2 emissions reduction is to create institutions that would make it in the self-interest of the vast majority of actors to sharply curtail their CO2 emissions (Barrett 2003), starting from the condition wherein benefit accrues rapidly to the emitter and the climate costs are borne primarily by others distant in space and time.

When Adaptation in Agriculture Is Not Enough

Operation of these safety nets is typically improved when programs are in place before a shock arrives, and when governments hold reserve funds for their operation (given that government revenues, and thus funding, can also decline in a bad year) (World Bank 2008). In the specific case of food aid, most research suggests cash-based food aid is a more efficient means of aid delivery in the face of shortfalls, although there are caveats (Barrett and Maxwell 2005).

First Antarctic Drilling 19721975

Figure 3.1 Map showing the Antarctic continent and ice drainage systems (based on Drewry, 1983), with sites of the first drill holes on the Antarctic continental shelf (DSDP Leg 28). Subsequent shelf sites in the McMurdo Sound region (box - see Fig. 3.3 for detail), Prydz Bay and the Antarctic Peninsula are also shown, each reflecting the history of the ice sheet in their respective regions. DSDP Leg 29 drilled lower latitude deep-sea sites south of New Zealand for the first Cenozoic isotopic record of ice volume and temperature (see text). Modified from Barrett (1999), with permission. Figure 3.1 Map showing the Antarctic continent and ice drainage systems (based on Drewry, 1983), with sites of the first drill holes on the Antarctic continental shelf (DSDP Leg 28). Subsequent shelf sites in the McMurdo Sound region (box - see Fig. 3.3 for detail), Prydz Bay and the Antarctic Peninsula are also shown, each reflecting the history of the ice sheet in their respective regions. DSDP Leg...

Exploration And Exploitation

John (1986) considered to be viable hydrocarbon targets, those of the Ross Sea region rank highly (e.g., Holdgate and Tinker, 1979 Lock, 1983). Modelling studies suggest that, of the three Ross Sea basins (Fig. 11.11), the Eastern and Victoria Land basins have good exploration potential, while the Central Trough is barely marginal (Cook and Davey, 1984). Discovery of ashphal-tic residues at a depth of c. 633 m near the base of CIROS-1 (Barrett, 1987) will further tantalize hydrocarbon prospectors.

Important sources of highvalue coproducts 1751 Fruit processing

This fruit can be processed to obtain juice. The peels are around 30 of the fruit and constitute an interesting source of procyanidins (mainly polymeric). The polyphenol oxidase activity has to be inactivated before or during extraction to avoid browning and polyphenols degradation. Other agricultural wastes are the bracts which are especially rich in anthocyanins (delphinidin, cyanidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, petunidin and malvidin) (Pazmino-Duran et al., 2001). In addition, carotenoids (xanthophylls) ester-ified with myristate, laurate, palmitate and caprate have also been reported (Subagio et al., 1996).

Health care pharmaceuticals and plants

This is not to imply that the use of a single form of health care or a single method for the development of new drugs is either inevitable, or even desirable. In the quest for health it is fair to say that all 'guns' should be brought to bear. An economic approach to health care implies that there are inevitable trade-offs to be made between the cost-effectiveness of different health care portfolios, even that of pharmaceuticals based on plants. Having raised these larger issues, this chapter now focuses on only a narrow area of this portfolio the development of pharmaceutical products.

Cleaner Production


Electrostatic powder painting uses polymer-based paints that do not have any solvent in their formulation. A long-term problem was changing to a different color of paint. This is now accomplished by changing the whole module with containers of different colors. The company has now installed a new electrostatic powder painting line having 12 automatic powder guns. The paint is positively charged relative to the metal items. Now only 5 of the colors have organic solvents and are used only for the painting of short production runs in special colors or for retouching of the automatically sprayed items where necessary. Manual spraying is carried out in a ventilated booth fitted with two electrostatic guns.

Aerosol Bacteria and Viruses at Pleasanton California Land Treatment System Using Undisinfected Effluent

System where undisinfected effluent was applied to the land. It seems clear that the very low aerosolization efficiencies (E) as defined in Equation 3.27 for sludge spray guns and truck-mounted sprinklers indicate very little risk of aerosol transport of pathogens from these sources, and this has been confirmed by field investigations (Sorber et al., 1984)

Assumptions about future trends

The use of scenarios to explore future effects of climate change on population health is at an early stage of development (see Section 8.4.1). Published scenarios describe possible future pathways based on observed trends or explicit storylines, and have been developed for a variety of purposes, including the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005), the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES, Nakicenovic and Swart, 2000), GEO3 (UNEP, 2002) and the World Water Report (United Nations World Water Assessment Programme, 2003 Ebi and Gamble, 2005). Examples of the many possible futures that have been described include possible changes in the patterns of infectious diseases, medical technology, and health and social inequalities (Olshansky et al., 1998 IPCC, 2000 Martens and Hilderink, 2001 Martens and Huynen, 2003). Infectious diseases could become more prominent if public-health systems unravel, or if new pathogens arise that are resistant to our...

Penetration of Lake Vostok

Drilling of the access hole through the ice shelf was completed the next season on 2 December 1977, but this time with a flame-jet, produced by the continuous combustion of fuel oil in a high-pressure air flow. The 416 m deep access hole with a diameter of more than half a meter flame-drilled its way to the sea below in 7 hours (Browning, 1978). But it also filled the hole with a large amount of a mixture of fuel oil and soot from the incomplete combustion of fuel oil. As a result a large amount of it escaped into the sea beneath the ice shelf. No one seriously considered the issue of contamination, but Mr. Hansen, a famous drilling equipment engineer and designer of the drilling equipment that froze in the borehole while attempting to make an ecologically clean hole through the ice shelf, mentioned to everyone at the camp that If they had allowed me to put gallons of contamination under the ice shelf, I would design a completely different and much more reliable drilling unit, which...

The Ice Sheet Development Mid Early Miocene to Early Pliocene

Drill cores from the middle Miocene have been recovered at DSDP Sites 272 and 273 (Hayes and Frakes, 1975 Savage and Ciesielsky, 1983 Leckie and Webb, 1986), and consist of diatom-bearing sediments interpreted as waterlain tills and proximal- to distal-glacimarine deposits (Hambrey and Barrett, 1993). Upper Miocene rocks are missing from all continental shelf drill cores, except in the McMurdo Sound region (MSSTS-1, DVDP-10 and -11 drill sites), where glaciomarine diamictites (tillites) and terrestrial strata are found. These deposits are interpreted as having originated from glaciers flowing out of the Transantarctic Mountains (Powell, 1981 Barrett, 1986 Ishman and Webb, 1988 McKelvey, 1991).

Further Sea Ice Drilling The Ciros Project

Discussions at the SCAR meeting in Queenstown (Barrett and Webb, 1981) led to a proposal for Cenozoic investigations in the western Ross Sea (CIROS) to drill four holes in two successive seasons from the sea ice off New Harbour and off Granite Harbour (Barrett, 1982), based on the seismic surveys of Wong and Christoffel (1981) and Cooper et al. (1987). The project logistics were managed by the NZ Antarctic Programme with significant US support and scientific participation, and the drill rig and camp were set up in late 1984, 12km off Marble Point (Fig. 3.3), for the first drill hole (CIROS-1). However, concerns grew about the poor state of the sea ice and just prior to drilling, it was decided to shift the camp and rig 20 km inshore to the CIROS-2 site in Ferrar Fiord. After a number of set-backs, CIROS-2 was successfully drilled 165 m below the sea floor to a granitoid basement, recovering several cycles of Quaternary black sand and diamict and Pliocene mudstone and diamictite. The...

Developments in Drilling and Thinking in the Late 1970s

Although DVDP had concluded its work, the NZ Antarctic Programme was persuaded that a further effort to drill in western McMurdo Sound was justified. This was named the McMurdo Sound Sediment and Tectonic Studies Project (MSSTS), and led by New Zealand but with US and Japanese scientific participation. The United States provided the ''Longyear 44'' rig from DVDP and significant logistic support. A camp for the MSSTS-1 hole was set up on the sea ice soon after the late August winter flight to the ice, allowing the drilling to begin in October 1979. Despite the cold and difficult conditions, core was recovered to a depth of 227 m below the sea floor, when operational problems terminated drilling. After passing through a few tens of metres of Plio-Pleistocene strata, and an interval of virtually no recovery, the strata below 110 m bsf cored well. They provided a record of striking facies changes between diamictites, sand and mud, along with a pollen record and a beech leaf indicating a...

Antarctica in the Upper Palaeozoic Mesozoic c 450180 Ma Evolution of Gondwana

The Beacon Supergroup consists of dominantly continental sedimentary deposits which constitute a generally flat-lying, 2.5-3.5km thick cover developed over a marked unconformity (Kukri Peneplane) above the Ross orogenic belt throughout most part of the Transantarctic Mountains (Fig. 7.2). Similar sequences are known in limited outcrops in East Antarctica (Prince Charles Mountains, Dronning Maud Land and Ellsworth Mountains) (Barrett, 1991) and as bedrock of the Cenozoic glaciomarine sediments in the Victoria Land Basin (VLB) in the Ross Sea as documented by the CRP-3 drill-hole (Cape Roberts Science Team, 2000). Outside Antarctica, similar sedimentary rocks, collectively called Gondwanian sequences, occur in South Africa, Australia and South America. The deposition of these sediments in Antarctica started in Devonian time with the Taylor Group, consisting dominantly of quartz-arenites and conglomerates. Deposited as the result of erosion and fluvial processes under arid and semiarid...

Pre IceSheet Pre LateOligocene Time

Acoustic basement rocks have been sampled at two sites, and are Palaeozoic Beacon Formation rocks at the CRP-3 site adjacent to the coast (Cape Roberts Science Team, 2000) and are inferred palaeozoic and Cretaceous igneous and metamorphic rocks at DSDP Site 270 in the centre of the Ross Sea (Hayes and Frakes, 1975). The basins are believed to hold sedimentary rocks of Cretaceous and younger age (Hinz and Block, 1984 Cooper et al., 1991c), but Sedimentary rocks older than late Eocene have not been cored by drilling. Upper Eocene sediments have been cored in the CIROS-1 drillhole in McMurdo Sound (Coccioni and Galeotti, 1997 Fielding et al., 1997 Hannah et al., 1997 Monechi and Reale, 1997). The presence of ubiquitous lonestones (Barrett, 1989) testifies that glaciers (but not necessarily continent-size ice sheets) were calving at sea-level then.

The Present Day Geotectonic Setting of Antarctica

Directly linked and causally related to the development of the WARS (e.g. ten Brink et al., 1997 Studinger et al., 2004, and references therein). The Transantarctic Mountains uplifted 6-10 km in an asymmetric tilt block formation and underwent denudation from the Cenozoic to the Cretaceous (Fitzgerald, 1992, 1995 Studinger et al., 2004). The later part of the uplift and denudation phases occurred under persisting spreading extension within the western Ross Sea (Cande et al., 2000) and has been concomitant with voluminous sediment infilling from the Late Eocene Oligocene to present (Barrett et al., 2000, 2001 Hamilton et al., 2001).

Summary and Conclusions

Strata recovered from the Antarctic margin indicate a significant glacial advance at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary reaching the south Shetland Islands on the Antarctic Peninsula (Troedson and Riding, 2002) and grounding in Prydz Bay and the South Western Ross Sea as indicated by hiatuses in drill cores (Hambrey et al., 1991 Roberts et al., 2003 Naish et al 2008). Ice rafted as far north as Maud Rise (Barker et al., 1988a, b) and the central Ross Sea (Leckie and Webb, 1983) but did not appear to reach the Kerguelen Plateau (Schlich and Wise, 1992). Pre-Oligocene-Miocene boundary strata indicate a late Oligocene Antarctic Ice Sheet (Cape Roberts Science Team, 1999), which expanded to an ice volume of the order of 20 greater than the present ice sheet at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary (Naish et al., 2008). The glacial expansion, however, although significant in extent and volume, must have been relatively transient and neither cold nor extensive enough to extinguish Nothofagus tundra...

Records from the Antarctic Margin

The Antarctic Oligocene-Miocene record is most complete in the Victoria Land Basin as recovered in the CIROS-1 and CRP-2A drill holes (Barrett, 1989, Cape Roberts Science Team, 1999 Figs. 9.1 and 9.6). As with Prydz Bay, much of the Oligocene record of the Victoria Land Basin is marked by significant hiatuses (Wilson et al., 1998, 2000a, b Florindo et al 2005), however, the latest Oligocene-early Miocene is preserved in both records (Naish et al., 2001 Wilson et al., 2002 Roberts et al., 2003). On the basis of radiometric, biostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic data, Wilson et al. (2002) placed the Oligocene-Miocene boundary at 183.7 m in the CRP-2A core at the base of a normal polarity interval correlated with Polarity Subchron C6Cn.2n using Berggren et al.'s (1995) time scale. However, following the astronomical revision of the late Oligocene through early Miocene time scale (Billups et al., 2004 Gradstein et al, 2004 P like et al., 2004), Naish et al. (2008) placed the boundary...

Sea Level and Ice Volume Changes

Lithostratigraphic data from Antarctic margin drill cores show clear evidence on the shelf (PB, RS) for linked sea-level and ice-volume changes. This is best shown in the Oligocene through early Miocene record of cyclic glacial and interglacial lithologies near the coast in Cape Roberts cores (WRS) (Barrett, 2007). Lithostratigraphic data from the slope (PB) and rise (PB, AP) show additional direct evidence for cyclic ice-volume changes. Seismic-reflection data provide indirect evidence across the entire margin for the linked sea-level and ice-volume fluctuations that have been noted by many investigators and have been modelled in the RS (Bartek et al., 1991) and presented conceptually for all margins (ten Brink et al., 1995). The Antarctic drill cores are too limited, however, to establish the timing, magnitude and extent of individual ice sheet advances onto the continental shelf, other than for the LGM.

Early Glacial Late Oligocene to Early Miocene

This period includes seismic sequences RSS-2 and -3 (Fig. RS-3 and Foldouts RS-1 and RS-2). Sedimentary rocks from this period were recovered at CIROS-1, and CRP-1, -2 and -3, and MSSTS-1 drilling sites in the McMurdo Sound area. Such rocks include compacted diamicton indicative of deposition by under grounded ice, as well as mud and ice-rafted debris (IRD) indicative of open-water environments (Barrett, 1986 Barrett, 1989 Hannah, 1994 Cape Roberts Science Team, 2001), in lower Miocene sediments at CRP 2 2A sites. Compacted diamicton and mud layers at site CRP-1, vary with uniform cyclicity, and document systematic oscillation of the EAIS size (Naish et al 2001). The oscillations are at orbital periodicities similar to those recorded by isotope studies in distal deep-ocean sediments. In the eastern Ross Sea, at DSDP Site 270, Nothofagus-dominated flora in lower Miocene sediments (Kemp and Barrett, 1975) are similar to those recovered in McMurdo Sound drillcores (Hill, 1989 Mildenhall,...

Climate Evidence from Drilling on the Antarctic Margin

The onset of glaciation in Antarctica is not yet well constrained, largely because no cores have yet been obtained that unequivocally provide a continuous transition from no-ice to ice-sheet scale glaciation. This is because (i) most cores terminated before the base of the glacigenic sediments was reached, (ii) a hiatus exists at the base of the glacigenic strata, as in CRP-3 in the Ross Sea (Barrett and Ricci, 2001a,b) and Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1166 in Prydz Bay (Shipboard Scientific Party, 2001a,b,c,d), or (iii) the age models based on multiple criteria have been revised several times (e.g. CIROS-1 Wilson et al., 1998a). On land, there is evidence for ice proximal-fjordal sedimentation possibly dating back to Oligocene time in the Prince Charles Mountains (Hambrey and McKelvey, by exceptionally high recovery (up to 98 ). In the 702 m deep CIROS-1 hole (Barrett, 1989 Barrett et al., 1991), the lower part of the core was originally regarded as Late Eocene, with a breccia...

Antarctic Sea Ice Drilling

Progress in further sea-ice drilling began slowly with a SCAR workshop in Bremerhaven in 1990 for discussions that led to the formation of SCAR Group of Specialists on Global Change (GLOCHANT). While Cenozoic glacial history was seen as beyond the remit of the group, the meeting was productive in that it began a discussion among US, NZ, Italian, German and UK scientists for a workshop in Wellington (Barrett and Davey, 1992) that initiated the Cape Roberts Project (CRP). Following the meeting, national programmes agreed to plan for drilling four holes in two seasons to core a 1,500 m sequence that was thought from seismic correlation to extend the CIROS-1 record back to the Cretaceous. A new drilling system was also needed (Fig. 3.6). The Cape Roberts Project sites were drilled, after a year's delay on account of poor ice conditions, and with three drilling seasons (1997-1998 to 1999-2000, reported in CRST (Cape Roberts Science Team) (1998, 1999, 2000) and Davey et al. (2001). The...

Rural Sustainable Development Efforts

The promotion of sustainability as an instrument to reconcile economic development with the conservation of natural resources was first advanced in earnest at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The main document emerging from the historic meeting, Agenda 21, underscores the intimate relationship between poverty and environmental degradation in developing countries, along with the unsustainable pattern of consumption in developed countries (United Nations 1992). A major conclusion of the Agenda authors was the need to maintain and improve the capacity of the most productive agricultural land to support an expanding population, while at the same time to implement measures towards conservation and rehabilitation of natural resources (land, water, forests) on less productive lands. Many scholars argue that a primary means to achieving this outcome is through the promotion of sustainable intensification techniques (Tisdell, 1988 Tisdell, 1999 Lee and Barrett, 2000). However, as...

Suggested Reading

Barrett, P.J. and Hambrey, M.J. (1992) Plio-Pleistocene sedimentation in Ferrar fjord, Antarctica. Sedimentology, 39,109-23. Hambrey, M.J., Barrett, P.J., Ehrmann, W.U. and Larsen, B. (1992) Cenozoic sedimentary processes on the Antarctic continental shelf the record from deep drilling. Zeitschrift Fiir Geomorphologie, 86, 77-103.

Global Industrial and Social Progress Research Institute GISPRI

Barrett, Ecological Modernisation and Japan (RoutledgeCurzon, 2005) Jeffrey Broadbent, Environmental Politics in Japan Networks of Power and Protest (Cambridge University Press, 1999) M.A. Schreurs, Environmental Politics in Japan, Germany, and the United States (Cambridge University Press, 2003)

Sustainable Agro Urban Development

The present challenge for agrolandscape management is to minimize the infringement of urbanization on agricultural land, to restore biological diversity (genetic niche, species, and landscape) at greater temporal and spatial scales, to establish linkages (ecological and economic) between urban and rural (heterotrophic and autotrophic) patch elements, and to achieve sustainable productivity (P R 1) at agro-urban (regional) scales. Goals for achieving sustainable agrolandscape management should focus on (1) achieving stability regarding P R ratios among het-erotrophic and autotrophic systems at these scales (2) creating both natural corridor and human transport linkages between rural and urban systems (3) protecting the integrity of ecosystem watershed processes, such as nutrient recycling and primary productivity and (4) establishing management policies for optimal land use within transition suburban areas that ecologically and economically form an interface between urban and...

Cultural And Historical Perspectives Of The Present Agrolandscape

Various ideologies resulting from this second nature, especially how nature should be managed or controlled, have contributed to the present fragmented landscape. The evolutionary significance of the mature (model) system, including how natural selection has resulted in the evolution of efficient mechanisms for insect pest control, nutrient recycling, and mutualistic behavior, is often poorly understood. A hallmark of these mature and sustainable ecological systems is also maximum biological diversity (Moffat, 1996 Tilman et al., 1996 Tilman, 1997). Environmental literacy must increase if societies are to develop sustainable agriculture and sustainable agrolandscapes (Barrett, 1992 Orr, 1992). For example, natural processes and concepts such as pulsing, carrying capacity, natural pest control, nutrient cycling, positive and negative feedback (cybernetics), and net primary productivity must be understood by ecologically literate societies in order to provide a quality environment for...

Ligand Binding Interaction with Nucleotides and 2Oxog Iutarate

The amino terminal region of A. vinelandii NifA comprises a GAF domain (Figure 1), a ubiquitous motif found in signaling proteins from all kingdoms of life, some of which bind cyclic GMP (Aravind, Ponting 1997). Recent structural determination of Saccharomyces cerevisiae YKG9, a member of the GAF family, reveals that the fold of this motif resembles that of the PAS domain and similarities in the binding pockets of the two motifs have led to the suggestion that the GAF fold may also bind a variety of different co-factors (Ho et al. 2000). The GAF domain of NifA is predicted to have a regulatory function and when this domain is removed, producing a truncated variant of NifA comprising the central and C-terminal domains, the truncated protein is no longer susceptible to inhibition by the oxidized form of NifL in vitro (Barrett et al. 2001). However, the truncated protein is still inhibited by NifL when Mg ADP is present, although co-chromatography experiments suggest that the complex...

Toward Sustainability Of Agrolandscapes

Patch connectivity (Fahrig and Merriam, 1985) and to promote societal sustainability (Barrett, 1989). Landscape corridors (linkages) manifest various configurations depending on natural phenomena, cultural preferences, or historical development (Hough, 1990). Corridors may connect a sequence of congruent patches. For example, corridors of an ecological mosaic have been defined as disturbance corridors (e.g., power lines), planted corridors (e.g., shelterbelts), regenerated corridors (e.g., fence-row succes-sional vegetation), remnant corridors (e.g., strips of native or climax vegetation) and resource corridors (e.g., riparian areas) (see Barrett and Bohlen, 1991, for details regarding corridor types). These corridors also may reflect or parallel land-use


This book would not have been possible without the help of many individuals at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Our deepest appreciation goes to Nancy Geiger-Wooten, Miranda Lavrakas and Naomi Saliman for their skills in graphics and editing. Terry Haran and Ken Knowles provided satellite data, while Cindy Brekke smoothly coordinated undergraduate assistants. Doug Young and Tom Priestly kept the computers running. Florence Fetterer always had the latest information on sea ice conditions. To our reviewers - Todd Arbetter, Yarrow Axford, David Bromwich, John Cassano, Richard Lammers, Amanda Lynch, Drew Slater and John Walsh - all of you were instrumental in helping to improve the content, presentation and rigor of the text. Jeff Key provided figures specifically for this book, as did Andy Barrett, Ken Fowler, Richard Lammers, Jim Maslanik, Jamie Morison, Ignatius Rigor, Julienne Stroeve and Hengchun Ye. A host of colleagues took time from their busy schedules to answer...

Kyoto Mechanisms

Issue (iii) is a fundamental issue for the entire mechanism. Emission trading is carried out over a fixed duration of time. Emissions are like other durable commodities that can be consumed or stored. But, unlike other commodities, there are entities that might have to purchase a certain amount of emission reduction units from the market (irrespective of its past trade position in emission trading) at the end of the period. Otherwise, they are deemed to be in a state of noncompliance. The immediate costs of noncompliance under the KP are a reduction in the emission cap in the next commitment period by an amount that is more than the actual excess emission in the current commitment period. (Actually, one is not sure whether the next commitment period exists so it is uncertain whether such a penalty is effective or not, and so there is a non-negligible probability that one gets away with this noncompliance penalty. Barrett (2005) views this loose compliance as the fatal defect of the...

Post Kyoto

The extent of the size of cooperating nations is a classical issue studied by the branch of game theory called coalition formation, and there is a vast literature even for international environmental agreements alone (for a general overview, see Barrett (2005), for example, and also see the references in Rubio and Ulph (2007), which consider this problem from a dynamic perspective). One conclusion frequently reached is that there is not much hope of having many countries join a cooperative ring. Several devices to enlarge the extent of cooperation have been examined and proposed, but the sovereignty and limited commitment ability of nations severely restricts such a possibility. As an illustration, let us go back to the model described earlier in which we show a simple example of a two-stage analysis (initiated by Barrett (1994) and Carraro and Siniscalco (1993). Now, we separate out the term representing the benefit from the world emission reduction, V (X), where X Z xl is now a...


Outside the affected regions that people were dying. Even when it was known and people were willing to provide assistance, little could be done to help those in need. When people are not culpably ignorant and they are not in a position to be efficacious, there is little point in ascribing duties to them. But today things are very different with respect to information and causal efficacy. We live in an age in which national boundaries are porous with respect to almost everything of importance people, power, money, and information, to mention a few. These help to make obligations possible. If people, power, money, and information are so transnational in their movements, it is hard to believe that duties and obligations are confined by borders.64 The view that duties do not transcend national boundaries (unlike lawyers, guns, and money - not to mention drugs and immigrants) is really equivalent to denying people in the developing world a place at the table. It is the global equivalent of...

Modelling issues

Specialized alternative forms of the governing equations have also been proposed for purposes of superior computational performance, for more robust behaviour when applied using 'open' boundary conditions, and or for more complete removal of high-frequency variability. Examples include the balance equations (McWilliams et al., 1990 Allen, 1991), various filtered systems (Browning et al., 1990), and equations based on Lattice Boltzman methods (Salmon, 1999). None of these alternate forms has received systematic large-scale

Application Methods

Liquid biosolids can be injected below the soil surface by using tank trucks equipped with injection shanks or incorporated immediately after surface application by using plows. A tractor equipped with liquid biosolids injection lines can also accomplish subsurface application. The liquid to be injected is supplied by a hose connected to the injection device. The tethered hose is dragged along by the tractor. Advantages of subsurface application include minimization of potential odor and vector attraction, reducing ammonia loss due to volatilization, and elimination of surface runoff. Irrigation methods include sprinkling with large-diameter high-capacity sprinkler guns, and furrow irrigation. Sprinkling is used primarily for application to forested lands. The principal advantage of furrow irrigation is that liquid biosolids can be applied to row crops during the growing season without having the biosolids contact the crops themselves.

Lactose from whey

Oligosaccharides are carbohydrates of three to ten linked monomer sugars most commonly produced by enzymic transglycosylation reactions of lactose (Playne & Crittenden 1996). Oligosaccharides pass through the colon unde-graded, where they encourage the growth of bifidobacteria in the intestine. Oligosaccharides also contribute to the development of the immune system, in human milk they have a protective effect against viral and bacterial infections, stimulate the immune response and enhance the bioavailability of minerals (Geisser et al. 2005). Oligosaccharides are water soluble and mildly sweet, they have a high viscosity and can contribute to the mouth-feel of the product. They can be used as a humectant, to control Maillard browning or inhibit starch retrogradation (Crittenden & Playne 1996).

Plastic Film

Polyhydroxyalkanoates Degradation

Root rot and vascular browning caused by Acremonium spp., Chase et al. (1999a) found a clear thermal-infrared absorbing film as consistently more effective in increasing soil temperature than low-density polyethylene. Numerical and field studies of Al-Kaysi and Al-Karaghouli (2002) showed that mulching soil with a paraffin-wax emulsion film, rather than transparent polyethylene, resulted in more effective soil heating and a faster killing of pathogenic soil fungi.

Acknowled Gements

As editor, I would like to express my sincere thanks to all the contributors to this book for their tremendous effort in producing manuscripts, to Drs P.J. Barrett and T. Hatherton who kindly reviewed the entire book and D.G. Ainley, W.F. Budd, M.W. Cawthorn, A.E. Gilmour, C.H. Hay, J.R. Keys, K.B. Lewis, R.C. Murdoch, A.D. Pritchard, M.R. Sinclair and B.R. Stanton who reviewed individual chapters, to B. Grant for permission to reproduce the frontispiece, to Ms J.A. McDonald and Mr C.T. Pham who stoically interloaned the many books required in editing this volume, to Mr M. Podstolski who prepared the index, to Mr K.W. Majorhazi who drew a number of diagrams and, most importantly of all, to Mrs R.-M. Thompson who undertook the onerous task of preparing the whole volume to camera-ready copy. Advice, comment, field assistance and companionship has come from many-individuals but I am particularly indebted to P.J. Barrett, R.M. Kirk, M.C.G. Mabin, C. Montieth, I.F. Owen and R.B. Thompson....

Process Description

While all of the above-mentioned methods have found widespread acceptance by industry, the most widely used method for applying paint is still the spray gun. A spray gun operates by using compressed air, to atomize the paint and produce a fan or circular cone spray pattern. Many installations are automated so that a fixed gun is turned on when an object passes in front of it. In its simplest use, the gun is hand-held and the object remains stationary. Some of the variations on spray gun painting are airless spray guns and electrostatic spray guns. Airless spray guns force the paint out at high pressure so that air is not required for atomization. By eliminating the use of compressed air, operating costs are lower, spray mists are not produced, and expensive exhaust systems are not required. Electrostatic spray units are designed so that the atomized paint leaving the gun has a positive charge. This positive charge causes the paint to be attracted to the object which is connected to...


Paula Alvarado, Global Warming in Argentina, Tree Hugger, (cited September 2007) J.P. Barrett, Argentina and Kazakhstan Set Example for Lowering Global Emissions, Economic Policy Institute, (cited September 2007) P.J. Ber-eciartua, Vulnerability to Global Environmental Changes in Argentina Opportunities for Upgrading Regional Water Resources Management Strategies, Water Science and


The level of phenolic compounds varies greatly among fruits and vegetables, within their various tissues and over time. Young fruit have higher levels of phenolic compounds than ripe fruit, while younger vegetative tissue has lower levels than more mature tissue. Artichokes, apples and potatoes, for example, have relatively high levels of phenolic compounds constitutively, and rapidly brown when cut. In contrast, lettuce has low levels of phenolic compounds and the synthesis and accumulation of wound-induced phenolic compounds significantly increase the development of tissue browning. Development of strategies to control tissue browning must therefore be tailored to the requirements of the specific commodity and form in which it is marketed (e.g. whole or fresh-cut). Antioxidants can lessen the browning of phenolic compounds already present in the tissue, while interfering with phenolic synthesis can prevent the accumulation of sufficient concentrations to produce browning in tissue...


In addition to these effects, in waterlogged saline land, root-zone hypoxia can lead to increased Na+ and or Cl- uptake to the shoots, which decreases plant growth and survival (reviewed by Barrett-Lennard, 1986, 2003). In a wide-ranging review of the literature, hypoxia under saline conditions caused at least 30 increases in either Na+ or Cl- concentrations in the leaves or shoots of 23 of 24 species surveyed (Barrett-Lennard, 2003).

Revelle Roger 190991

Born in Seattle, Washington, on March 7, 1909, Revelle was raised in Pasadena, California, and soon stood out as a gifted student during his academic career. In 1925, Revelle enrolled at Pomona College with an interest in journalism, but later switched to geology as his major field of study. In 1928, Revelle met Ellen Virginia Clark, a student at the neighboring Scripps College and a grandniece of Scripps College founder Ellen Browning Scripps. The couple married in 1931.

Climate Cycles

Some scientists believe that ice ages may be caused by the variations in sunlight hitting the Earth during its solar journeys. However, the amount of sunlight during the solar journey has to be combined with solar variations. The sun goes through cycles of activity in which varying levels of energy are emitted. The solar energy variations are related to the presence and absence of sunspots. Increases in these are likely to also bring about an increase in aurora lights, in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The aurora lights are connected to the magnetic field of the Earth. Researchers studying the sun's magnetic activity over 100,000-year cycles have proposed the theory that the climate of the Earth is affected by this solar activity cycle. Waldo S. Glock attempted to show a relationship between the weather as a part of a climate pattern and variations in periodic solar activity.

Author Index

Baethgen, W.E. 288 Baker, R.H.A. 123 Baldy, C. 10 Ballestra, G. 159 Balston, J. 215 Balston, J.M. 192t Banda, D.S. 142 Banks, L. 284, 288 Baradas, M.W. 2, 223 Barrett, E.C. 22, 24t Bateman, M.A. 135 Bathgate, A.D. 191t Bauer, A. 48 Baumgartner, A. 28t, 34 Bayley, D. 252 Baylis, M. 141 Beard, G. 214 Bedo, D. 109 Beniston, M. 269 Bennet, S.M. 65 Benoit, P. 72 Berbigier, P. 36, 37, 38f Bernardi, M. 11, 223 Bhattacharya, S. 130 Bian, J.M. 120 Biedenbender, S.H. 44 Bierhuizen, J.H. 47t Bierwirth, P.N. 162 Billings, S.D. 164 Bindi, M. 285 Bingham, I.J. 45 Bishnoi, O.P. 135

Education Outreach

During the IPY there will be considerable emphasis on improving our understanding of the behaviour of the Antarctic Ice Sheet and the climate of the region, and on the history of the ice sheet and climate. The ACE programme will make a significant contribution to this latter goal. IPY projects will use proxy records from sediment cores, ice cores and other sources to define how the past climate and environments changed. A greater understanding of past changes in this region is crucial to forming a better knowledge of future global environmental change and to predicting the role of the Antarctic Ice Sheet in the future as Earth warms. During the IPY new ice cores will be recovered in Greenland (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling, NEEM project), and Antarctica (West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide, WAIS Divide), providing new high-resolution records of glacial and interglacial changes during the Quaternary. On a longer time scale, drilling of sediment cores along the Antarctic continental...