Jf vV2Z2 dxdy5

The last term in (5), which represents the effect of mixing, is always negative; mixing always reduces the overall vorticity gradient in the domain. The first term on the right hand side of (5), which represents stirring, is usually positive. The reason is that, in an average sense, positive local vorticity extremes (i.e. V2Z < 0) near the typhoon core are likely to be coupled with the positive vorticity advection (i.e.

'yj < 0). In other words, stirring directly increases the palinstrophy. The velocity field in our vortices, especially the wind field associated

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