Info

Peak underestimation &

77-67= 10 m/s

916-9321 hPa = —16 hPa

64-56 = 8 m/s

79-65 = 14 m/s

underestimation percentage in RI

10/39 = 26%

( —16)/(—53) =30%

8/26 = 31%

14/52 = 27%

from without warm eddy (feature) run from without warm eddy (feature) run in the Earth system by which the deep, cold, nutrient-rich water can be brought up from the deeper layer to the light-replete euphotic zone. The nutrients can then fuel photosynthetic activities and cause enhancement in primary production (i.e. phytoplankton bloom) (Eppley, 1989; Marra et al., 1990; Dickey et al., 1998; Lin et al., 2003b). Such processes are difficult to monitor and measure, and a quantitative determination of the change of the marine primary production induced by tropical cyclones is elusive.

During the three days, from 5 to 8 July 2000, that typhoon Kai-Tak translated over the South China Sea, it triggered a huge phyto-plankton bloom with an average of a 30-times-over increase in surface chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration, as observed by the SeaWiFS (O'Reilly et al., 1998) sensor. In this section, major findings of this event based on Lin et al., 2003b are introduced. This is one the first quantitative events documenting such a typhoon-induced biogeochemical response in the western North Pacific and adjacent seas.

Kai-Tak was a moderate, category 2 typhoon on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale. It lingered at a nearly stationary speed of 0-1.4 ms"1 on the northern South China Sea (from 5 to 8 July 2000) before it proceeded speedily (^6.1 ms"1) northward [Fig. 4(b)]. The biological response to the passing of Kai-Tak was depicted by changes in the surface distribution of Chl-a. The pretyphoon condition was illustrated in the SeaWiFS composite from 27 June to 4 July 2000 [Fig. 4(a)], which showed the typical summer surface Chl-a concentrations of predominantly < 0.1 mgm"3. After Kai-Tak's passage (5-8 July), the first available cloud-free SeaWiFS image composite (12-15 July) illustrated an evident enhancement of biological activity, as revealed by the Chl-a concentration [Fig. 4(b)]. The bloom patch (117.5-120°E, 19.3-20.7°N), predominantly of Chl-a concentrations of around 10mgm-3, coincided with Kai-Tak's trajectory and its radius of intense wind (^ 14ms-1). At certain locations (e.g. 118.4°E, 20°N), the Chl-a concentrations reached as high as 30mgm-3, 300-fold the pretyphoon condition as depicted in the Chl-a distribution (on the log scale) along tr1 [Fig. 4(c)]. The pretyphoon [from Fig. 4(a)] and the three-year (1998, 1999, and 2001) monthly average of the July Chl-a concentrations along tr1 are also depicted for comparison in Fig. 4(c).

Another drastic response, which can be observed in Fig. 5, is the drop in the SST. Before Kai-Tak's arrival, the SCS was characterized by a warm SST predominantly above 30°C [Fig. 5(a)]. Immediately after Kai-Tak's departure, on 9 July, a cold SST (21.5-24°C) pool (118-120°E, 19-20.5°N) of a size comparable to Kai-Tak's 150 km radius of intense

115" 116" 117" 118" 119' 120" 121' 122' 123' 124" 115' 116' 117' 118' 119' 120' 121' 122' 123' 124'

115" 116" 117" 118" 119' 120" 121' 122' 123' 124" 115' 116' 117' 118' 119' 120' 121' 122' 123' 124'

Figure 4. SeaWiFS surface Chl-a image composite on (a) 27 June-4 July 2000 (before Kai-Tak) and (b) 12, 14, 15 July 2000 (after Kai-Tak). The circle denotes Kai-Tak's radius of intense wind (defined as ^ 14ms"1 in this work). The location of the transect tr1 crossing the longitude is also depicted. (c) Comparison of the surface Chl-a distribution along tr1: pink — before [from Fig. 4(a)]; green — after [from Fig. 4(b)]; blue — the three-year (1998, 1999, 2001) average of surface Chl-a concentration for the month of July.

Figure 4. SeaWiFS surface Chl-a image composite on (a) 27 June-4 July 2000 (before Kai-Tak) and (b) 12, 14, 15 July 2000 (after Kai-Tak). The circle denotes Kai-Tak's radius of intense wind (defined as ^ 14ms"1 in this work). The location of the transect tr1 crossing the longitude is also depicted. (c) Comparison of the surface Chl-a distribution along tr1: pink — before [from Fig. 4(a)]; green — after [from Fig. 4(b)]; blue — the three-year (1998, 1999, 2001) average of surface Chl-a concentration for the month of July.

115' 116" 117' 118' 119" 120' 121' 122" 123' 124' 115' 116' 117" 118' 119' 120' 121' 122' 123' 124"

115' 116" 117' 118' 119" 120' 121' 122" 123' 124' 115' 116' 117" 118' 119' 120' 121' 122' 123' 124"

Figure 5. Same as Fig. 4 but for the TRMM TMI/SST image on (a) 1-3 July 2000 (before Kai-Tak) and (b) 9 July 2000 (after Kai-Tak). (c) Comparison of the SST distribution along trl: pink — before [from Fig. 5(a)]; brown — 1-day after [from Fig. 5(b)]; green — 4-6 days after (image not shown); blue — the three-year (1998, 1999, 2001) average of SST for the month of July.

Figure 5. Same as Fig. 4 but for the TRMM TMI/SST image on (a) 1-3 July 2000 (before Kai-Tak) and (b) 9 July 2000 (after Kai-Tak). (c) Comparison of the SST distribution along trl: pink — before [from Fig. 5(a)]; brown — 1-day after [from Fig. 5(b)]; green — 4-6 days after (image not shown); blue — the three-year (1998, 1999, 2001) average of SST for the month of July.

wind 14 ms 1), colocated with the typhoon's track, was observed [Fig. 5(b)]. The minimum SST of 21.5°C was found at the center (118.9°E, 19.9°N) of the cold pool. In comparison with the pretyphoon condition (30.7°C), the SST dropped by as much as 9°C. The distributions of SSTs along the cross-section tr1 (depicted in Fig. 5) over the cold pool before and after the passing of the typhoon, and the three-year (1998, 1999, and 2001) mean for July are shown in Fig. 5(c). Since the 1960s, there have been a number of observational and modeling studies of typhoon-induced upper ocean cooling responses (Chang and Anthes, 1978; Price, 1981; Stramma et al., 1986; Cornilon et al., 1987; Monaldo et al., 1997; Dickey et al., 1998; Bender and Ginis, 2000; Wentz et al., 2000) with reported SST reduction generally spanning 0.5-6°C. The 9°C cooling inferred by the TRMM microwave imager here is one of the strongest-ever observed. In the original paper (Lin et al., 2003b), entrainment mixing and upwelling velocity are estimated to show that due to the shallow thermocline in the South China Sea during summer, it is possible for a near-stationary typhoon to induce such a drastic cooling response.

Using the observed Chl-a and SST data as input to a marine primary production model (Behrenfeld and Falkowski, 1997), it is possible to estimate the contribution of Kai-Tak to marine primary production. The changes in SST, surface Chl-a, and depth-integrated primary production (IPP) with time at the center of the phytoplankton bloom (Lin et al., 2003b) are shown in Fig. 6. The temperature depression and the phyto-plankton bloom, as indicated by the elevation of the Chl-a concentration, could be tracked for about one month. The pretyphoon IPP was 300mgCm_2d_1, similar to the annual mean (Liu et al., 2002) IPP of 350 mg C m"2d"1. After the passage of the typhoon, IPP increased by almost an order of magnitude, to 2800 mgC m_2d_1. By integrating IPP over the bloom patch through each time interval, the carbon fixation resulting from this single event (12 July-16 August) was about 0.8 Mt (1 Mt = 1012 g) of carbon. Taking the 200 m bathymetry as the lower boundary of the oligotrophic waters, the area of the oligotrophic South China Sea is 2.76 x 106 km2, or about 80% of the total area of the South China Sea. If the f ratio in the South China Sea is similar to those in other oligotrophic waters, 0.06-0.14 (Eppley, 1989), typhoon Kai-Tak would have accounted for 2-4% of the annual marine primary production in the oligotrophic South China Sea.d dThe oligotrophic part of the South China Sea in this work is defined as the basin (i.e., open ocean part) of the South China Sea where the bathymetry is typically > 200 m.

Figure 6. Changes in SST (circles), surface Chl-a (squares; log scale), and IPP (diamonds) of the bloom patch before and after Kai-Tak's passage (5—8 July).

Due to the lack of definitive observations, the contribution of tropical cyclones to primary production has long been treated as negligible. Our result, based on the synergy of three recently available satellite data sets, proves, on the contrary, that tropical cyclones induce significant contributions to the overall primary production in tropical seas.

4. Posttyphoon Air—Sea Interaction (Based on Lin et al., 2003a)

As discussed before, tropical cyclones can cool the ocean surface and mixed layer by induced entrainment and upwelling as deep, cold water is brought to the upper ocean layer. After a typhoon's departure, a cold wake is left behind. As in Sec. 3, the cold patches in the wake may be as much as 9° C cooler than the surrounding warm ocean (Lin et al., 2003b). Therefore they top represent a sizable perturbation of the SST in an otherwise relatively uniform warm ocean environment. This presents a unique natural laboratory for investigating the nature of ocean-atmosphere coupling.

Following on from Sec. 3, the case of typhoon Kai-Tak is chosen to study the posttyphoon air-sea interaction. In this work, colocated and near-coincident TRMM SST and QuikSCAT wind vectors are intercompared. It can be observed in Fig. 7(a) that prior to Kai-Tak, the northern South China Sea was under typical summer conditions, with the SST in the range of 30.5-33.0°C. The corresponding wind field [Fig. 8(a)] is characterized by a higher wind speed (9-11ms_1) at the region north of 19°N, while

Figure 7. Sequence of representative TMI/SST images showing the evolution of typhoon Kai-Tak's cold SST patch: (a) before the typhoon on 2 July 2000; (b) after the typhoon on 11 July at 0100 UTC; (c) at 0900 UTC on 11 July; (d) composite of 13 and 14 July passes; (e) on 19 July. The trajectory of Kai-Tak is depicted in Fig. 7(b).

Figure 7. Sequence of representative TMI/SST images showing the evolution of typhoon Kai-Tak's cold SST patch: (a) before the typhoon on 2 July 2000; (b) after the typhoon on 11 July at 0100 UTC; (c) at 0900 UTC on 11 July; (d) composite of 13 and 14 July passes; (e) on 19 July. The trajectory of Kai-Tak is depicted in Fig. 7(b).

Figure 8. Same as Fig. 7, but for the matching QuikSCAT wind speed image: (a) before the typhoon on 1 and 2 July; (b) after the typhoon on 10 July; (c) on 11 July; (d) on 13 July; (e) on 19 July.

south of 19°N the wind speed is lower (3-6ms"1). No evident association between SST and wind is observed. Between 5 and 8 July, Kai-Tak passed over the South China Sea [Fig. 7(b)]. Though the maximum SST cooling occurred on 9 July [as seen in Sec. 3 and Fig. 4(b)], the wind fields were then still under the influence of the typhoon. Posttyphoon response is studied from 11 July onward. From Fig. 7(b), one sees that the cold SST patch (118-120°E, 19-21°N) has the dimension of around 150-200 km and that the minimum SST of 22°C is found at the center (118.9°E, 19.9°N) of the oval cold patch and increases outward to 26° C toward the edge. The surrounding SST is around 29-30°C. The corresponding wind field [Fig. 8(b)] shows a distinctive minimum spatially coincident with the cold patch. The wind speed inside the cold patch is between 2.5 and 6ms"1, while the surrounding wind speed is between 8 and 11ms"1.

Observing Figs. 7(c)/8(c), 7(d)/8(d), and 7(e)/8(e), 9 similar correlation between the cold SST patch and reduction in wind speed can be found till 19 July, persisting for eight days. For example, on 13 July, the induced cold SST pattern had weakened and elongated [Fig. 7(d)], but the corresponding wind speed [Fig. 8(d)] evolved into similar shapes, illustrating the close correlation between SST and wind, with a relatively high (> 12 ms"1) wind north and south of the cold patch. This again shows that the wind speed over the cold SST patch remains relatively low, in contrast to the high wind in the adjacent areas to the north and south of it. On 19 July, the cold patch had greatly diminished into a small, circular feature at around 117.5°E, 20°N [Fig. 7(e)], and disappeared shortly thereafter. This is consistent with the mechanism proposed by Wallace et al. (1989), that cool SST is correlated with low surface wind because of a decrease in atmospheric boundary layer stability. Over colder waters, the marine boundary layer is stable, vertical mixing is suppressed, vertical wind shear increases, and the surface wind speed is reduced.

In the existing literature, a number of studies report a similar correlation between SST and surface wind speed on a much longer time (~20-40 days) and spatial scale (^1000-2000 km), i.e. in the case of tropical instability waves and the eastern Pacific Ocean cold tongue (Xie et al., 1998; Wentz et al., 2000; Chelton et al., 2001). Our results support the Wallace et al. (1989) hypothesis of the SST-wind coupling in a different situation, namely in the cold SST wakes of typhoons. What we show in our examples discussed above are the small space and short time scales on which this mechanism can act. In the typhoon-induced cold wake situation, the coupling manifests itself within a day and on the spatial scale of 100-400km. In the original paper (Lin et al., 2003a), the relationship between wind speed and SST anomalies is further investigated. Also, a similar correlation between wind and SST in the cold wake of supertyphoon Bilis (2000) is found. Interested readers are referred to Lin et al. (2003a) for further details.

5. Summary

In this review, we have introduced applications of new satellite observations of previously rarely observed typhoon-ocean interaction phenomena in the western North Pacific and adjacent seas, as presented by Lin et al. (2003a,b; 2005). Examples for three different phenomena have been given to illustrate the interaction between the typhoon and the warm ocean eddy, enhancement of ocean primary production induced by the typhoon, and posttyphoon air-sea interaction. These new observations show that:

(1) The presence of warm ocean eddies plays a critical role in supertyphoon Maemi's intensification. In the presence of a warm ocean eddy with deep warm ocean water, typhoon self-induced ocean cooling is much reduced. As a result, Maemi (2003) was able to reach category 5, due to the minimal negative feedback. Numerical experiments by the CHIPS (Emanuel, 1999; Emanuel et al., 2004) coupled typhoon-ocean model have found that without the presence of a warm ocean eddy, Maemi's intensity could only reach category 4.

(2) Typhoons can induce drastic biological responses in the ocean, and hence may play a significant role in the marine primary production and carbon fixation. As observed in the case of typhoon Kai-Tak (2000), during its short, three-day meandering in the South China Sea, this moderate, category 2 typhoon caused an average of a 30-fold increase in the ocean surface chlorophyll-a concentration. The estimated carbon fixation resulting from this event alone is 0.8 Mt, or 2-4% of the South China

Sea 's annual new production. Each year, about 14 cyclones pass over the South China Sea, suggesting that the long-neglected contribution of typhoons to the South China Sea 's annual new production may be as much as 20-30%. (3) There is an interesting air-sea coupling long after the typhoon's passage. The cold wake of the typhoon existed for more than a week, as observed in the case of typhoon Kai-Tak (2000). Intercomparison of coincident/ colocated QuikSCAT ocean surface wind vectors finds clear and consistent weakening of the surface wind speed over the cold SST wake. This suggests that the boundary layer stability is increased because of the cold ocean surface, and the surface wind speed is reduced due to diminished vertical mixing (Wallace et al., 1989; Xie et al., 1998; Chelton et al., 2001). In particular, our result suggests that this mechanism can act on a relatively small spatial scale (—100 km) and short (—1 day) time scale, in contrast to the previously reported much longer time scale (—20-40 days) and large spatial scale of —1000-2000km (xie et al., 1998; Wentz et al., 2000; Chelton et al., 2001).

As the above works are based on studies of an individual case, ongoing efforts are being made to conduct systematic analysis in studying the typhoon-ocean interaction problems in the western North Pacific.

[Received 9 April 2007; Revised 30 August 2007; Accepted 15 September 2007.]

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