By taking logarithmic derivatives of Eq. (1), the sensitivities of t,L,D, and re to the 740 hPa atmospheric temperature (T) are given by d ln t dT

where d ln L

dliiL dTc dTc dT

Following the study by Chang and Coakley (2007), which focused on midlatitudes and sub-tropics, here the values of dln T/dT [Fig. 4(a)], dlnre/dT [Fig. 4(b)], and dTc/dT [Fig. 4(c)] are presented for all latitudes from 55° S to 55° N.

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