The Climate of the Arctic

Rajmund Przybylak

Atmospheric and Océanographie Sciences Library

Bower Academic Publishers

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ISBN 1-4020-1134-2

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CONTENTS

Acknowledgments xi

I Intmthhrtinn I

I 1 H«nirut.irii-< nf tht* A relit* 1 1.2 Main Geographical Factor* Shaping the Climate 5

2. Atmospheric Circulation 13

2.1 Development of Views on Atmospheric Circulation in the Arctic 13

2.2 Large-scale Atmo*phcric Circulation 14

2.3 Synoptic-scale Circulation 21

?I rn.il t iiMiljiion anil Mrmualtr IFiMnrhaittiri_22

3. Radiation Conditions ii

3.1 Sunshine Duration 35

1 ^ Shnf1-W:ivf Nil Kaihalmfl_ii

3.4 Long-wave Net Radiation 47

} * Net Radialinn .irul Olhcr P.ktncnh »t the Ural ttal.mc All

4.1 Mean Monthly. Seasonal, and Annual Air Temperature 63

4.2 Mean and Absolute Extreme Air Temperature* 81

4.3 Temperature Inversions 91

5 ('hmdnifVi_22

5.1 The Annual Cycle 98

5 2 Spatial Pancnt» 101

6. Air Humidity 109

6.1 Water Vapour Pressure 109

<> 2 Rgjgtivc Humidity 112

7. Atmosphere Precipitation and Snow Cover 117

7 1 Atmospheric Precipitation 120

7.2 Number of Day* with Precipitation

8 Air PnHiuinn_lál

9. Climatic Regions 149

9.1 The Atlantic Region 150

9.2 The Siberian Region 152

9 3 The payif.9 RcRi9n 153

9.4 The Canadian Region 154

9.5 The Baffin Bay Region 156

9.6 The Greenland Region 157

9.7 The Interior Arctic Region 158

10. Climatic Change and Variability in the Holocenc 161

101 Pfrinri KM I ka 1 ka HP_Lill

102 Period I fcfcflJ ka BP_

11. Scenarios of the Arctic Climate in the 21' Century 203

111 Model Simulations of the Procnt-day Arctic Climate 203

11.2 Scenarios of the Arctic Climate in the 21" Century 211

Referente_22$

Copyright Acknowledgements 259

loto_263

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