Copyright Acknowledgements

I gratefully acknowledge the following copyright holders, who have kindly provided permission to reproduce the figures and tables indicated. Sources of all figures and tables are given in each figure and table caption and the full publication details are found in the References section (pp. 225-257):

Figs. 1.2, 2.2 (January and July), 2.5, 3.1, 6.4-6.5, 7.11: from Atlas Arktiki 1985, by permission of the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute; Fig. 1.3: from the Central Intelligence Agency, 1978, Polar Regions Atlas, National Foreign Assessment Center, C.I.A. Washington, DC, 66 pp.; Figs. 1.4-1.5 and Table 1.1: from Descriptive Physical Oceanography: An Introduction by G.L. Pickard and W.J. Emery, reprinted by permission of Elsevier Science; Fig. 2.1: from H.J. Crutcher H.J. and J.M. Meserve, 1970, Selected Level Height, Temperatures, and Dew Points for the Northern Hemisphere, reprinted by permission of NAVA1R, Washington, D.C.; Fig. 2.2 (April and October): from S.G. Gorshkov (Ed.), 1980, Military Sea Fleet Atlas of Oceans: Northern Ice Ocean, USSR: Ministry of Defense, 184 pp.; Figs. 2.3 and 2.4: from M.C. Serrezc, J.E. Box, R.G. Barry and J.E. Walsh, Characteristics of Arctic synoptic activity, 1952-1989, Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., 51, 147-164, © 1993, with kind permission of Springer-Verlag KG and the authors; Fig. 2.6: from S.G. Gorshkov (Ed.), 1980, Military Sea Fleet Atlas of Oceans: Northern Ice Ocean, USSR: Ministry of Defense, 184 pp.; Figs. 3.2-3.3, 3.8-3.14: from V.P. Khrol (Ed.), Atlas of the Eneigy Balance of the Northern Polar Region, © 1992, with kind permission of the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute; Figs. 3.4-3.6: from the publication: M.S. Marshunova and N.T. Chemigovskii, 1971, Radiation Regime of the Foreign Arctic, Gidrometeoiz-dat, Leningrad, 182 pp.; Fig. 3.7 and Table 3.1: from E. Vowinckel and S. Orvig, 1970, The climate of the North Polar Basin, in: S. Orvig (Ed.), Climates of the Polar Regions, World Survey of Climatology, 14, Elsevier Publ. Comp., Amsterdam-London-New York, pp. 129-252.; Fig. 4.2: with the kind permission of the publisher and the editor; Fig. 4.6a-d: reprinted with the kind permission of P. Calanca; Fig. 4.6e: from A. Ohmura, New temperature distribution maps for Greenland, Zeit. fur Gletscherkunde und Glazialgeologie, 23, 1-45, © 1987, with the kind permission of the publisher and the author; Fig. 4.14: from the publication N.A. Zaitseva, S.M. Skony and J.D. Kahl, 1996, Temperature inversions over the Western Arctic from radiosonde data, Russian Meteorol. and Hydrol., 6, 6-17, reprinted with the permission of the publisher and the authors; Figs. 5.1 and 5.2: from R.E. Huschke, 1969, Arctic Cloud Statistics from "Air Calibrated" Surface Weather Observations, RAND Corp. Mem. RM-6173-PR, RAND, Santa Monica, CA, 79 pp., reprinted with permission; Fig. 5.4: from E. Vowinckel, 1962, Cloud amount and type over the Arctic, Scient. Rep., No. 4, Publ. in Meteorol., 51, McGill Univ., Montreal, 27 pp.; Fig. 5.5: from the publication S.G. Gorshkov (Ed.), 1980, Military Sea Fleet Atlas of Oceans: Northern Ice Ocean, USSR: Ministry of Defense, 184 pp.; Figs. 5.7 and 6.3: from l.M. Dolgin (Ed.), Meteorological Conditions of the non-Soviet Arctic, with kind permission of the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute; Fig. 6.2: from M.C. Serreze,

R.G. Barry, M.C. Rehder and J.E. Walsh, Variability in atmospheric circulation and moisture flux over the Arctic, Phil.Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A., 215-225, © 1995, with the kind permission of The Royal Society and the authors; Fig. 7.1: reprinted with permission from Polar Geography and Geology, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 63-75. © V.H. Winston & Son, Inc., 360 South Ocean Boulevard, Palm Beach, FL 33480. Al rights reserved; Fig. 7.4: from A. Ohmura, P. Calanca, M. Wild and M. Anklin, Precipitation, accumulation and mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet, Zeit. fur Gletscherkunde und Glazialgeologie, 35, 1-20, © 1999, with the kind permission of the publisher and the authors; Fig. 7.5: reprinted from the Journal of Glaciology with permission of the International Glaciological Society and A. Ohmura; Figs. 7.12-7.14 and Table 4.1: from V.F. Radionov, N.N. Bryazgin and E.I. Alexandrov, The Snow Cover of the Arctic Basin, University of Washington, Technical Report APL-UW TR 9701. © 1997, with the kind permission of the University of Washington; Figs. 7.15— 7.16: from S.G. Warren, I.G. Rigor, N. Untersteiner, V.F. Radionov, N.N. Bryazgin, Y.I. Aleksandrov and R. Colony, Snow Depth on Arctic sea ice, J. Climate, 12, 18141829. © 1999, with the kind permission of the American Meteorological Society; Figs. 8.1 and 8.2: from J. Heintzenberg, Arctic haze: air pollution in Polar regions, Ambio, 18, 51-55. © 1989, with the kind permission of the Royal Swedish Academy of Science; Fig. 8.3: from L.A. Barrie, Arctic air chemistry: an overview, in: Stonehouse B. (Ed.), Arctic Air Pollution, Cambridge University Press, pp. 5-23. © 1986, with the kind permission of Cambridge University Press; Fig. 8.4: reprinted with the kind permission of K.A. Rahn; Fig. 8.5: from WMO Bulletin 41 (2), by permission of the publisher; Fig. 10.1: from S.J. Johnsen, H.B. Clausen, W. Dansgaard, K. Fuhrer, N. Gundestrup, C.U. Hammer, P. Iversen, J. Jouzel, B. Stauffer and J.P. Steffensen, 1992, Irregular glacial interstadials recorded in a new Greenland ice core, Nature, 359, 311-313, with the kind permission of the publisher and the authors; Figs. 10.2, 10.8 and 10.10: reprinted with the permission of D.A. Meese, A.J. Gow, P. Grootes, PA. Mayewski, M. Ram, M. Stuiver, K.C. Taylor, E.D. Waddington and G.A. Zielinski, The accumulation record from the GISP2 core as an indicator of climate change throughout the Holocene, Science, 266, 1680-1682. © 1994 American Association for the Advancement of Science; Figs. 10.3 and 10.5: reprinted with the permission of S.R. O'Brien, P.A. Mayewski, L.D. Meeker, D.A. Meese, M.S. Twickler and S.I. Whitlow, Complexity of Holocene climate as reconstructed from a Greenland ice core, Science, 270, 1962-1964. © 1995 American Association for the Advancement of Science; Fig. 10.4: reprinted with the permission of D. Dahl-Jensen, K. Mosegaard, N. Gundestrup, C.D. Clow, S.J. Johnsen, A.W. Hansen, and N. Balling, Past temperatures directly from the Greenland Ice Sheet, Science, 282, 268-271. © 1998 American Association for the Advancement of Science; Fig. 10.6: from D.J.A. Evans and J. England, 1992, Geomorphological evidence of Holocene climatic change from northwest Ellesmere Island, Canadian High Arctic, The Holocene, 2, 148-158, with the kind permission of the publisher and the authors; Figs. 10.7 and 10.13 from R.A. Vaikmae, Paleoenvironmental data from less-investigated polar regions, in: G. Weller, C.L. Wilson and B.A.B. Severin (Eds.), International Conference on the Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change, vol. II, Proceedings of a Conference held June 11-15, pp. 611-616. © 1990, with the kind permission of the

University of Alaska.; Fig. 10.9: from H. Fischer, M. Werner, D. Wagenbach, M. Schwager, T. Thorsteinnson, F. Wilhelms, J. Kipfstuhl and S. Sommer, Little ice age clearly recorded in northern Greenland ice cores, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 17491752, © 1998 American Geophysical Union, reproduced by permission of American Geophysical Union; Fig. 10.11: from B.T. Alt, D.A. Fisher and R.M. Koerner, Climatic conditions for the period surrounding the Tambora signal in ice core from the Canadian High Arctic Islands, in: C.R. Harington (Ed.), The Year Without a Summer? World Climate in 1816, Ottawa, pp. 309-325. © Canadian Museum of Nature 1992, with the kind permission of the publisher and the authors; Fig. 10.12: from R.S. Bradley and RD. Jones, 1993, 'Little Ice Age' summer temperature variations: their nature and relevance to recent global warming trends, The Holocene, 3, 367376, with the kind permission of the publisher and the authors; Fig. 11.1: J.E. Walsh and R.G. Crane, A comparison of GCM simulations of Arctic climate, Geophys. Res. Lett., 19, 29-32, © 1992 American Geophysical Union, reproduced by permission of American Geophysical Union; Figs. 11.2 and 11.4: from X. Tao, J.E. Walsh and W.L. Chapman, An assessment of global climate model simulations of Arctic air temperature, J. Climate, 9, 1060-1076. © 1996, with the permission of the American Meteorological Society; Fig. 11.3: from J.E. Walsh, V. Kattsov, D. Portis and V. Meleshko, Arctic precipitation and evaporation: Model results and observational estimates, J. Climate, 11, 72-87. © 1998, with the permission of the American Meteorological Society; Figs. 11.5 and 11.9: from S. Manabe, R.J. Stouffer, M.J. Spelman and K. Bryan, Transient responses of a coupled ocean-atmosphere model to gradual changes of atmospheric C02. Part I: Annual mean response, J. Climate, 4, 785-817. © 1991, with the permission of the American Meteorological Society; Figs. 11.6, 11.8 and 11.10 from H. Cattle and J. Crossley, Modelling Arctic climate change, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A, 352, 201-213. © British Crown Copyright 1995, with the kind permission of the Royal Society and the authors; Fig. 11.7: from A. Kattenberg and 82 co-authors, Climate models - Projection of future climate, in: J.T. Houghton, L.G. Meila Filho, B.A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg and K. Maskell (Eds.), Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, pp. 285-357, reprinted with the kind permission of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

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