W

Upward Emission from H20, C02, 03, clouds etc (195) Direct Surface Radiation (40)

Downward Emission from H20, C02, 03, etc (324)

Radiation From Surface (Blackbody at 288K)

^ Absorption by Surface

FIGURE 1.9 Global average mean radiation and energy balance per unit of earth's surface [adapted with permission from IPCC (1996) with numbers from Kiehl and Trenberth (1997)].

Significantly complicating predictions of the impact of human activities on global climate is incomplete understanding of feedbacks, which can be either positive or negative. As a result, there are currently large "error bars" on predictions of global climate change due to human activities, and this is a very active area of research. The chemical aspects of the atmosphere relevant to global climate issues are discussed in detail in Chapter 14.

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