Adams, R. M., J. D. Glyer, S. L. Johnson, and B. A. McCarl, "A Reassessment of the Economic Effects of Ozone on U.S. Agriculture," J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc., 39, 960-968 (1989).

Akimoto, H„ and H. Narita, "Distribution of S02, NOA., and C02 Emissions from Fuel Combustion and Industrial Activities in Asia with 1° x 1° Resolution," Atmos. Environ., 28, 213-225 (1994).

Aneja, V. P., "Natural Sulfur Emissions into the Atmosphere," J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 40, 469-476 (1990).

Arndt, R. L„ G. R. Carmichael, D. G. Streets, and N. Bhatti, "Sulfur Dioxide Emissions and Sectorial Contributions to Sulfur Deposition in Asia," Atmos. Environ., 31, 1553-1572 (1997).

Bascom, R., P. A. Bromberg, D. L. Costa, R. Devlin, D. W. Dockery, M. W. Frampton, W. Lambert, J. M. Samet, F. E. Speizer, and M. Utell, "Health Effects of Outdoor Air Pollution, Part 1," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 153, 3-50 (1996a).

Bascom, R., P. A. Bromberg, D. L. Costa, R. Devlin, D. W. Dockery, M. W. Frampton, W. Lambert, J. M. Samet, F. E. Speizer, and M. Utell, "Health Effects of Outdoor Air Pollution, Part 2," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 153, 477-498 (1996b).

Berges, M. G. M., R. M. Hofmann, D. Scharffe, and P. J. Crutzen, "Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Motor Vehicles in Tunnels and Their Global Extrapolation," J. Geophys. Res., 98, 18527-18531 (1993).

Berkowitz, C. M., K. M. Busness, E. G. Chapman, J. M. Thorp, and R. D. Saylor, "Observations of Depleted Ozone within the Boundary Layer of the Western North Atlantic," J. Geophys. Res., 100, 11483-11496 (1995).

Bonsang, B., C. Polle, and G. Lambert, "Evidence for Marine Production of Isoprene," Geophys. Res. Lett., 19, 1129-1132 (1992).

CEC (Commission of the European Communities), "Emission Factors," DG XI CORINAIR, TNO Report No. 88-355, C. Veldt and A. Bakkum, Apeldoorn, The Netherlands, 1988.

CEC (Commission of the European Communities), "Environment and Quality of Life," CORINAIR Working Group on Emission Factors for Calculating 1985 Emissions for Road Traffic, Vol. 1: Methodology and Emission Factors, Final Report, EUR 12260 EN, 1989.

CEC (Commission of the European Communities), "Default Emission Factors Handbook," 2nd ed., CORINAIR Inventory Project, CITEPA, Paris, July 1991.

Chameides, W. L., "Acid Dew and the Role of Chemistry in the Dry Deposition of Reactive Gases to Wetted Surfaces," J. Geophys. Res., 92, 11895-11908 (1987).

Cochran, L. S., R. A. Pielke, and E. Koväcs, "Selected International Receptor-Based Air Quality," J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 42, 1567-1572 (1992).

Corbett, J. J., and P. Fischbeck, "Emissions from Ships," Science, 278, 823-824 (1997).

Dabberdt, W. F., D. H. Lenschow, T. W. Horst, P. R. Zimmerman, S. P. Oncley, and A. C. Delany, "Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Measurements," Science, 260, 1472-1481 (1993).

Dasch, J. M., "Direct Measurement of Dry Deposition to a Polyethylene Bucket and Various Surrogate Surfaces," Environ. Sei. Tech-nol., 19, 721-725 (1985).

Davies, T. D., and J. R. Mitchell, "Dry Deposition of Sulphur Dioxide onto Grass in Rural Eastern England with Some Comparisons with Other Forms of Sulphur Deposition," in Precipitation Scavenging, Dry Deposition, and Resuspension, Vol. 2, Dry Deposition and Resuspension (H. R. Pruppacher, R. G. Semonin, and W. G. Slinn, Eds.), pp. 795-804, Elsevier, New York, 1983.

Dockery, D. W., and J. Schwartz, "Particulate Air Pollution and Mortality: More Than the Philadelphia Story," Epidemiology, 6, 629-632 (1995).

Dockery, D. W„ C. A. Pope III, X. Xu, J. D. Spengler, J. H. Ware, M. E. Fay, B. G. Ferris, and F. E. Speizer, "An Association between Air Pollution and Mortality in Six U.S. Cities," N. Engl. J. Med., 329, 1753-1759 (1993).

Droppo, J. G., Jr., "Concurrent Measurements of Ozone Dry Deposition Using Eddy Correlation and Profile Flux Methods," J. Geo-phys. Res., 90, 2111-2118 (1985).

Edinger, J. G., "Vertical Distribution of Photochemical Smog in Los Angeles Basin," Environ. Sci. Technol., 7, 247-252 (1973).

Edinger, J. G„ M. H. McCutchan, P. R. Miller, B. C. Ryan, M. J. Schroeder, and J. V. Behar, "Penetration and Duration of Oxidant Air Pollution in the South Coast Air Basin of California," J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc., 22, 882-886 (1972).

EPA, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "National Air Pollutant Emission Trends, 1900-1994," EPA-454/R-95-011, October 1995.

EPA, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "National Air Pollutant Emission Trends, 1900-1996," EPA-454/R-97-011, December 1997.

Erisman, J. W., A. Van Pul, and P. Wyers, "Parameterization of Surface Resistance for the Quantification of Atmospheric Deposition of Acidifying Pollutants and Ozone," Atmos. Environ., 28, 2595-2607 (1994).

"EUROTRAC Annual Report, 1993," P. Borrell, Coordinator, International Scientific Secretarial, Fraunhofer Institute, Kreuzeckbahnstrasse 19, D-82467, Garmisk-Partenkirchen, Germany.

Fall, R., "Biogenic Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Higher Plants," in Reactive Hydrocarbons in the Atmosphere (C. N. Hewitt, Ed.), Chap. 2, Academic Press, San Diego, 1999.

Fehsenfeld, F„ J. G. Calvert, R. Fall, P. Goldan, A. B. Guenther, C. N. Hewitt, B. Lamb, S. Liu, M. Trainer, H. Westberg, and P. Zimmerman, "Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Vegetation and the Implications for Atmospheric Chemistry," Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 6, 389-430 (1992).

Fenger, J., O. Hertel, and F. Palmgren, Urban Air Pollution—European Aspects, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1998.

Finlayson-Pitts, B. J., and J. N. Pitts, Jr., "Tropospheric Air Pollution: Ozone, Airborne Toxics, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, and Particles," Science, 276, 1045-1052 (1997).

Flat0y, F., and O. Hov, "NOt from Lightning and the Calculated Chemical Composition of the Free Troposphere," J. Geophys. Res., 102, 21373-21381 (1997).

Foken, Th., R. Dlugi, and G. Kramm, "On the Determination of Dry Deposition and Emission of Gaseous Compounds at the Biosphere-Atmosphere Interface," Meteorol. Z., 4, 91-118 (1995).

Franzblau, E„ C. J. Popp, E. W. Prestbo, N. A. Marley, and J. S. Gaffney, "Remote Measurement of N02 in the Brown Cloud over Albuquerque, New Mexico," Environ. Monit. Assess., 24, 231-242 (1993).

Friedrich, R., and A. Obermeier, "Anthropogenic Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds," in Reactive Hydrocarbons in the Atmosphere (C. N. Hewitt, Ed.), Chap. 1, Academic Press, San Diego, 1999.

Gao, W., and M. L. Wesely, "Modeling Gaseous Dry Deposition over Regional Scales with Satellite Observations. I. Model Development," Atmos. Environ., 29, 727-737 (1995).

Georgii, H.-W., and J. Pankrath, Eds., Deposition of Atmospheric Pollutants, Proceedings of a Colloquium held at Oberursel/ Taunus, West Germany, November 9-11, 1981, Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland, 1982.

Geron, C. D., A. B. Guenther, and T. E. Pierce, "An Improved Model for Estimating Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Forests in the Eastern United States," J. Geophys. Res., 99, 12773-12791 (1994).

Golden, P. D„ W. C. Küster, F. C. Fehsenfeld, and S. A. Montzka, "The Observation of a C5 Alcohol Emission in a North American Pine Forest," Geophys. Res. Lett., 20, 1039-1042 (1993).

Graedel, T. E., and R. McGill, "Degradation of Materials in the Atmosphere," Environ. Sci. Technol., 20, 1093-1100(1986).

Graedel, T. E., T. S. Bates, A. F. Bouwman, D. Cunnold, J. Dignon, I. Fung, D. J. Jacob, B. K. Lamb, J. A. Logan, G. Marland, P. Middleton, J. M. Pacyna, M. Placet, and C. Veldt, "A Compilation of Inventories of Emissions to the Atmosphere," Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 7, 1-26 (1993).

Guenther, A., C. N. Hewitt, D. Erickson, R. Fall, C. Geron, T. Graedel, P. Harley, L. Klinger, M. Lerdau, W. A. McKay, T. Pierce, B. Scholes, R. Steinbrecher, R. Tallamraju, J. Taylor, and P. Zimmerman, "A Global Model of Natural Volatile Organic Compound Emissions," J. Geophys. Res., 100, 8873-8892 (1995).

Guenther, A., "Modeling Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound Emissions to the Atmosphere," in Reactive Hydrocarbons in the Atmosphere (C. N. Hewitt, Ed.), Chap. 3, Academic Press, San Diego, 1999.

Haagen-Smit, A. J., M. F. Brunelle, and J. W. Haagen-Smit, "Ozone Cracking in the Los Angeles Area," Rubber Chem. Technol., 32, 1134-1142 (1959).

Hall, J. V., A. M. Winer, M. T. Kleinman, F. W. Lurmann, V. Brajer, and S. Colome, "Valuing the Health Benefits of Clean Air," Science, 255, 812-817 (1992).

Hameed, S., and J. Dignon, "Global Emissions of Nitrogen and Sulfur Oxides in Fossil Fuel Combustion," J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 42, 159-163 (1992).

Hewitt, C. N., Ed., Reactive Hydrocarbons in the Atmosphere, Academic Press, San Diego, 1999.

Hicks, B. B., Ed., Deposition both Wet and Dry, Acid Precipitation Series, Vol. 4 (J. I. Teasley, Series Ed.), Butterworth, Stoneham, MA, 1984.

Hicks, B. B., and J. A. Garland, "Overview and Suggestions for Future Research on Dry Deposition," in Precipitation Scavenging, Dry Deposition, and Resuspension," Vol. 2, Dry Deposition and Resuspension (H. R. Pruppacher, R. G. Semonin, and W. G. Slinn, Eds.), pp. 1429-1433, Elsevier, New York, 1983.

Hicks, B. B„ M. L. Wesely, R. L. Coulter, R. L. Hart, J. L. Durham, R. E. Speer, and D. H. Stedman, "An Experimental Study of Sulfur Deposition to Grassland," in Precipitation Scavenging, Dry Deposition, and Resuspension," Vol. 2, Dry Deposition and Resuspension (H. R. Pruppacher, R. G. Semonin, and W. G. Slinn, Eds.), pp. 933-942, Elsevier, New York, 1983.

Hoffmann, M. R., "Response to Comment on 'Acid Fog,'" Environ. Sci. Technol., 18, 664 (1984).

Hinds, W. C., Aerosol Technology, Wiley, New York, 1982.

Huebert, B. J., and C. H. Robert, "The Dry Deposition of Nitric Acid to Grass," J. Geophys. Res., 90, 2085-2090 (1985).

IPCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment Report, (J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, and K. Maskell, Eds.), Climate Change 1995, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1996.

Jacob, D. J., and M. R. Hoffmann, "A Dynamic Model for the Production of H+, NO,, and SO^- in Urban Fog," J. Geophys. Res., 88, 6611-6621 (1983).

Jacob, D. J., J. M. Waldman, J. W. Munger, and M. R. Hoffmann, "Chemical Composition of Fogwater Collected along the California Coast," Environ. Sci. Technol., 19, 730-736 (1985).

Kato, N., and H. Akimoto, "Anthropogenic Emissions of S02 and NOA. in Asia: Emission Inventories," Atmos. Environ., 26A, 2997-3017 (1992).

Kley, D., "Tropospheric Chemistry and Transport," Science, 276, 1043-1045 (1997).

Lamb, B., D. Gay, H. Westberg, and T. Pierce, "A Biogenic Hydrocarbon Emission Inventory for the U.S.A. Using a Simple Forest Canopy Model," Atmos. Environ., 27, 1673-1690 (1993).

Lenner, M., "Nitrogen Dioxide in Exhaust Emissions from Motor Vehicles," Atmos. Environ., 21, 37-43 (1987).

Lin, X., K. R. Polenske, and K. Robinson, "Economic Impact Analyses in U.S. State and Local Air Pollution Control Agencies: A Survey," J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 44, 134-140 (1994).

Lipfert, F. W., and R. E. Wyzga, "Air Pollution and Mortality: Issues and Uncertainties," J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 45, 949-966 (1995).

Lovett, G. M., "Atmospheric Deposition of Nutrients and Pollutants in North America: An Ecological Perspective," Ecol. Appl., 4, 629-650 (1994).

Mage, D., G. Ozolins, P. Peterson, A. Webster, R. Orthofer, V. Vandeweerd, and M. Gwynne, "Urban Air Pollution in Megac-ities of the World," Atmos. Environ., 30, 681-686 (1996).

Mclnnes, G., Ed., Joint EMEF / CORINAIR Atmospheric Emission Inventory Guidebook, 1st ed., European Environmental Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1996.

McMahon, T. A., and P. J. Denison, "Empirical Atmospheric Deposition Parameters—A Survey," Atmos. Environ., 13, 571-585 (1979).

Micallef, A., and J. J. Colls, "Variation in Airborne Particulate Matter Concentration over the First Three Metres from Ground in a Street Canyon: Implications for Human Exposure," Atmos. Environ., 32, 3795-3799 (1998).

Monson, R. K., M. T. Lerdau, T. D. Sharkey, D. S. Schimel, and R. Fall, "Biological Aspects of Constructing Volatile Organic Emission Inventories," Atmos. Environ., 29, 2989-3002 (1995).

Moore, R. M., D. E. Oram, and S. A. Penkett, "Production of Isoprene by Marine Phytoplankton Cultures," Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 2507-2510 (1994).

Miiller, J.-F. "Geographical Distribution and Seasonal Variation of Surface Emissions and Deposition Velocities of Atmospheric Trace Gases," J. Geophys. Res., 97, 3787-3804 (1992).

Munger, J. W., D. J. Jacob, J. M. Waldman, and M. R. Hoffmann, "Fogwater Chemistry in an Urban Atmosphere," J. Geophys. Res., 88, 5109-5121 (1983).

National Research Council, Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment, Committee on Risk Assessment of Hazardous Air Pollutants, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1994.

Phalen, R. F., Inhalation Studies: Foundations and Techniques, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1984.

Phalen, R. F„ and R. O. McClellan, "PM-10 Research Needs," Inhalat. Toxicol., 7, 773-779 (1995).

Phalen, R. F„ R. G. Cuddihy, G. L. Fisher, O. R. Moss, R. B. Schlesinger, D. L. Swift, and H.-C. Yeh, "Main Features of the Proposed NCRP Respiratory Tract Model," Radiat. Protect. Dosim., 38, 179-184 (1991).

Pierce, T., C. Geron, L. Bender, R. Dennis, G. Tonnesen, and A. Guenther, "Influence of Increased Isoprene Emissions on Regional Ozone Modeling," J. Geophys. Res., 103, 25611-25629 (1998).

Price, C., J. Penner, and M. Prather, "NOA. from Lightning. 1. Global Distribution Based on Lightning Physics," J. Geophys. Res., 102, 5929-5941 (1997a).

Price, C., J. Penner, and M. Prather, "NOA from Lightning. 2. Constraints from the Global Atmospheric Electric Circuit," J. Geophys. Res., 102, 5943-5951 (1997b).

Pruppacher, H. R., R. G. Semonin, and W. G. N. Slinn, Precipitation Scavenging, Dry Deposition, and Resuspension, Vol. 2, Dry Deposition and Resuspension, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference, Santa Monica, California, November 29-December 3, 1982, Elsevier, New York, 1983.

Quinn, T. L., and J. M. Ondov, "Influence of Temporal Changes in Relative Humidity on Dry Deposition Velocities and Fluxes of Aerosol Particles Bearing Trace Elements," Atmos. Environ., 32, 3467-3479 (1998).

Schwartz, S. E., and P. Warneck, "Units for Use in Atmospheric Chemistry (IUPAC Recommendations 1995)," Pure Appl Chem., 67, 1377-1406 (1995).

Schwartz, J., D. W. Dockery, and L. M. Neas, "Is Daily Mortality Associated Specifically with Fine Particles?" J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 46, 927-939 (1996).

Shaw, R. W., "The Atmosphere as Delivery Vehicle and Reaction Chamber for Acid Precipitation," in Meteorological Aspects of Acid Rain (C. M. Bhumralker, Ed.), Acid Precipitation Series (J. L. Teasley, Series Ed.), Vol. 1, pp. 33-55, Butterworth, Stone-ham, MA, 1984.

Sievering, H., "Small-Particle Dry Deposition on Natural Waters: Modeling Uncertainty," J. Geophys. Res., 89, 9679-9681 (1984).

Singh, H. B., M. Kanakidou, P. J. Crutzen, and D. J. Jacob, "High Concentrations and Photochemical Fate of Oxygenated Hydrocarbons in the Global Troposphere," Nature, 378, 50-54 (1995).

Spiro, P. A., D. J. Jacob, and J. A. Logan, "Global Inventory of Sulfur Emissions with a 1° x 1° Resolution," J. Geophys. Res., 97, 6023-6036 (1992).

Stith, J. L., P. V. Hobbs, and L. F. Radke, "Airborne Particle and Gas Measurements in the Emissions from Six Volcanoes," J. Geophys. Res., 83, 4009-4017 (1978).

Streets, D. G., G. R. Carmichael, and R. L. Arndt, "Sulfur Dioxide Emissions and Sulfur Deposition from International Shipping in Asian Waters," Atmos. Environ., 31, 1573-1582 (1997).

Stull, R. B. An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology, Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht/Norwell, MA, 1988.

Tuazon, E. C., A. M. Winer, and J. N. Pitts, Jr., "Trace Pollutant Concentrations in a Multiday Smog Episode in the California South Coast Air Basin by Long Path Length Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy," Environ. Sci. Technol., 15, 1232-1237 (1981).

Unsworth, M. H., A. S. Heagle, and W. W. Heck, "Gas Exchange in Open-Top Field Chambers. I. Measurement and Analysis of Atmospheric Resistances to Gas Exchange," Atmos. Environ., 18, 373-380 (1984).

Vandenberg, J. J., and K. R. Knoerr, "Comparison of Surrogate Surface Techniques for Estimation of Sulfate Dry Deposition," Atmos. Environ., 19, 627-635 (1985).

Vedal, S., "Ambient Particles and Health: Lines That Divide," J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 47, 551-581 (1997).

Wang, Y., D. J. Jacob, and J. A. Logan, "Global Simulation of Tropospheric 03-NOA-Hydrocarbon Chemistry. 1. Model Formulation," J. Geophys. Res., 103, 10713-10725 (1998).

Wesely, M. L., "Parameterization of Surface Resistances to Gaseous Dry Deposition in Regional-Scale Numerical Models," Atmos. Environ., 23, 1293-1304 (1989).

Wesely, M. L., and B. B. Hicks, "Recent Progress in Dry Deposition Studies," Atmos. Environ. (1999). (In press.)

Wildt, J., D. Kley, A. Rockel, P. Rockel, and H. J. Segschneider, "Emission of NO from Several Higher Plant Species," J. Geophys. Res., 102, 5919-5927 (1997).

Wilson, W. E., and H. H. Suh, "Fine Particles and Coarse Particles: Concentration Relationships Relevant to Epidemiologic Studies," J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 47, 1238-1249 (1997). Wolf, M. E., and G. M. Hidy, "Aerosols and Climate: Anthropogenic Emissions and Trends for 50 Years," J. Geophys. Res., 102, 11113-11121 (1997). World Meteorological Organization (WMO), "Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: f994," Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, Report No. 37, published February 1995; 1998 update, Report No. 44, published February, 1999.

Yeh, H.-S., R. G. Cuddihy, R. F. Phalen, and I.-Y. Chang, "Comparisons of Calculated Respiratory Tract Deposition of Particles Based on the Proposed NCRP Model and the New ICRP66 Model," Aerosol Sei. Technol., 25, 134-140 (1996).

0 0

Post a comment