R

Radiance, 62 Radiation actinic, 55

amplification factor, 741

balance of incoming and outgoing, 763-766

infrared absorption, dependence on gas concentrations, 769-773 infrared emission by earth's surface and gases, 764-773 thermal emission of earth, 764-766 transfer processes in atmosphere, 766-769 ultraviolet, at earth's surface, 741-766 Radiative forcing adjusted, 784 clouds and, 799-814 definition, 783

gases, values for, 784-788, 813 instantaneous, 783

temperature change, relationship to, 784 particles direct effects, 790-799, 813 indirect effects, 799-814 Radiative transitions, of electronically excited molecules, 50 Radon, 844-846

Rates, reaction, definition of, 131 Rate constants compilations of, 171-172, and see Appendix IV conversion factors for, 132 determination of, 141-156, 744-746 first-, second-, and third-order, 131-132 temperature dependence of, 138-141 units of, 132 Rate laws, for elementary or overall reactions, 131 Rayleigh scattering of light, 58, 369 Reaction order, definition, 131 Reactions on surfaces, kinetics of, 158-172 Reactions in solution charged species, 153-155 diffusion-controlled, 152 experimental techniques, 155-156 gas-phase species, comparison to, 152 uncharged nonpolar species, 152-153 Reactivity adjustment factors for mobile source emissions, 910-913 application to mobile sources, 909-913 for electrophilic reactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 506-507 incremental, 910 maximum incremental, 910-913 for organic compounds, 907-913 Relative rate constants, 149-150

Remote troposphere Arctic chemistry, 241-244 biogenic organics emissions of, 225-231 chemistry of, 231-234 boundary layer chemistry, 234-239 nitrogen oxides in, 9, 225 overview, 9

upper troposphere, chemistry of, 239-241 Resistance model, for heterogeneous reactions, 158-165 Respiratory tract, particulate matter and, 22-23

Response time for species emitted into atmosphere, 774 Risk assessments, 38-39, 467-473, 501-502, 509, 925

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