P

PAN, see peroxyacetyl nitrate and peroxy-

acyl nitrates Particles; see also Coarse particles, Fine particles absorption of light by, 365, 373-375, 789 accumulation range, 354 Aitken nuclei range, 354 aerodynamic diameter, 351 artifacts in measurement of, 626 attenuation of solar radiation by, 393-396 biogenic organics in, 393-396 Brownian diffusion, 363-365 carbon, elemental, 373-375, 411-412 carbonate in, 625 chemical composition of, 380-412, 619-632

chemical mass balance and, 386-388 climate change direct effects on, 789-799 indirect effects on, 799-814 coagulation of, 378-379 coarse, definition, sources and sinks, 354-356

concentrations in troposphere, 618-619,

924-926 condensation mode, 356 condensation on particles, 378 control of, 923-925 crustal elements in, 381-382

Particles (continued) deliquescence of, 389-390 deposition rates, 364, 379 depth profiling of, 631-632 diameters aerodynamic, 351 range of, 349 Stokes, 351 diesel, 439 droplet mode, 356 dust, transported, 355-356 effluorescence of, 389 electrostatic effects, 364-365 elemental carbon, 367, 371, 373-375, 385,

623-625 enrichment factors, crustal, 381 external cs. internal mixtures, 357-358,

375, 388-391 factor analysis and, 387 fine particles, definition, sources and sinks,

354-358 see also Fine particles, gas-particle partitioning, 406, 412-423 gas reactions with, 379-380 generation of, 632-636 geometric mean diameters, types of, 359-360 determination of, 361 geometric standard deviation of size distribution, 360 gravitational settling, 362-363 growth of, 375-380 Hatch-Choate equations for, 361 health effects of, 22-23 heterogeneous condensation, 378 humidograph, 390 hygroscopicity, 410-412 hygroscopic growth factor, 372-373 indoors, 861-865 inorganic composition, 381-393 inorganics, measurement of, 619-623 ionic strength of, 155 Lagrangian analysis and, 387-388 light scattering and absorption by,

365-375, 789-799 light scattering coefficients, 371-373 mass spectrometry and, 626-632 measurement methods for, 608-632 mechanisms of formation, 375-380 metals in, 358, 381-382, 385 Mie light scattering by, 365-368 in models, treatment of, 906-907 modes, 351-358 motion of, 362-365 multimodal nature of, 351-358 multiple linear regression and, 387 mutagenicity of, see PAH and PAC nephelometer for measurements of, 368, 390

nitrate in, 384-386 nucleation and, 375-378 number, mass, surface, and volume distributions, 351-358 organic rs. elemental carbon, in particles, 411-412

organic films on, 407-410

organics in nonurban particles, 393-396

organics in anthropogenically influenced and aged particles, 396-407 primary and secondary, definition, 349 real time monitoring techniques for, 626-632

refractive indexes for components of, 367 sea salt, 382-384

secondary organic aerosols, 397-407 semivolatile organics gas-particle partioning, 412-423 yields of, 406 sensitivity of actinic flux to, 71-72 settling velocities of, 362-365 size distributions, 351-358 size ranges, 351-358

source apportionment, models of, 386-388 sources of, 21-25, 354-358 Stokes diameter, 351 Stokes law, 362 surfactants in, 407-410 tracers of, 386 ultrafine particles concentrations in polluted air masses, 358

definition, 354 visibility reduction and, 368-373 water and light scattering, 372-373 water uptake and evaporation, 410-412 Particle size calibration aerosols in measurement methods, 632-635 Particulate matter, see Particles Partitioning coefficients, gas-particle into liquids, 417-420 on solids, 413-417 Peroxides concentrations in troposphere, 597-598 measurement methods for, 595-597 organic, absorption spectra and photochemistry, 107-108 oxidation of S(IV), 313-314, 326 Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) absorption spectra, 103 from acetaldehyde oxidation, 217 concentrations in troposphere, 571,

594-595 in biomass combustion, 217 formation of, 217-218 hydroxyl radical reaction, 220 infrared spectrometry and, 217 measurement techniques, 552, 594-595 photochemistry, 103 photolysis rate, 103, 220 in smog chambers, 264-265 thermal decomposition, 141, 218-220 Peroxyacetyl radical reaction with NO, 219 Peroxyacyl nitrates, PANs concentrations in troposphere, 594-595 from isoprene oxidation, 218 some common atmospheric species, 217-218

thermal decomposition of, 219-220 measurement methods for, 594-595

Peroxynitric acid absorption spectrum, 100 photochemistry, 100 Pesticides atmospheric lifetimes and fate predictions,

928-930 indoors, 851-852, 858 measurement of, 566 Phosgene as product of tropospheric oxidations,

749-750 tropospheric fate, 751 Phosphorescence, definition, 50 Photochemical air pollution, 4-8 Photochemical processes types of primary, 51

primary cs. overall quantum yields, 51-52 Photochemical smog, history of, 4-8 Photochemistry, see also individual listings for compounds in aqueous solutions, 315-317 basic relationships, 50-55 Photolysis calculation procedure for rates of, 61-64, 76-81

rate constant, kp, 61, 76-81 Photophysical processes of electronically excited molecules, 50 Photophysical transitions, Jablonski diagram, 50

Pinonaldehyde in air, 232

nitrate radical reaction with, 234 from a-pinene reactions, 232-234 Pinonic acids in air, 232 Polycyclic aromatic compounds, see PAH and PAC definitions of, 439 chemical classes, 439 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) air quality and emissions standards, 466-467

in airborne particulate matter, 436 in ambient air PAH, 437-438, 443-444, 453-461,

493-494, 496, 497-502 N-PAC, 445-447 O-PAC, 448-449, 460-461 S-PAC, 450, 461 analysis of, spectroscopic, 461-462, 464 artifacts in sampling and analysis, 458-460 assay for bacterial mutagenicity, the Ames test, 475-480, 486-495 accuracy and precision, 480 activatible mutagens (promutagens), definition of, 476 advantages, 475-483 for airborne particle-bound mutagens,

475-483, 486-495 bioassay-directed fractionation and chemical analysis, 479, 482 chemical information from, 476-478 direct mutagens (-S9), definition, 476 for gas phase mutagens, 479-480

microsuspension modification, 478-479 mutagenicity of motor vehicle exhaust, diesel and gasoline, 487 mutagenic potencies of nitroarenes and nitro-oxy PACs, 476, 479-483 particle size and mutagenicity, 486 principles and procedures, 475-478 procedure diagram, 477 strains used in, 476-478 variability of, 480 assay for bacterial mutagenicity, forward mutation, 483-484, 495-496 assays for human cell mutagens, 484-486 atmospheric lifetimes (gas-phase), 527 benzo[a]pyrene, see also PAHs and PACs air quality and emissions standards,

466-467 ambient levels, 455-461, 466 carcinogenicity, 466-475 historical, 440, 466-467 mutagenicity, bacterial, 481 mutagenicity, human cell, 484-485, 499-500

potency equivalence factors, 466-475

reactivity, 505-507

spectrum, UV/visible absorption and emission, 463, 465 structure, 436, 438 transport and transformation decay, 507-509

bioassay-directed fractionation and chemical analysis bacterial assay, 479, 482, 484, 502-503 human cell assay, 497-500 cancer potencies and potency equivalence factors (PEF), 467-474 carcinogenicity, 466-475 PAH, 468-470 N-PAC, 471-474 concentrations in ambient air (gas and particle phases), 455-461, 467, 472, 473-474, 485 cyclopenta[c,d]pyrene, see also PAH and PAC

ambient levels, 455, 457, 469, 485,

497-500 carcinogenicity, 469 mutagenicity, human cell, 484-485,

499-500 potency equivalence factor, 469 reactivity, 505-508

spectrum, UV/visible absorption, 464 structure, 443

transport and transformations, decay, 507-509

emission controls and standards, impacts of, 500-501 emissions from combustion sources, 436-439, 492 biomass burning, 436 coal fly ash, 438, 492-493 diesel engine exhaust, 438, 439, 492-493 environmental tobacco smoke, 438 fuel oil, 492-493

gasoline engine and exhaust, 438,

492-493 indoor air, 438 municipal incinerators, 438 wood smoke, 436, 438 fluorescence spectrometry, 461-462 formation of, 438

forward mutation bacterial assay, 483-484, 495-496

gas-particle partitioning, 415-423, 436, 453-461

gas phase reactions with OH, N03, and 03 in simulated atmospheres,

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