N

Natural lifetime, see Lifetime Nebulizers, in aerosol generation, 633-634 Nephelometer extinction coefficients measured using, 368 in humidograph technique, 390 schematic diagram, 368

Nitrate ion in ice cores, 808 photochemistry of, 317 trends in, 808, 915 Nitrate radical absorption spectrum and cross sections, 100-101 aldehyde reactions, 213-214 alkane reactions, 8, 184 alkene reactions, 201-205 alkyperoxy radical reactions, 187 aqueous phase reactions, 277-279 aromatic hydrocarbon reactions, 212 biogenic reactions, 202, 231-234 bromide ion, reaction with, 278 concentrations in troposphere, 560, 580 cresol reactions, 212

differential optical absorption spectrometry, 556-560, 578-580 dimethyl sulfide reaction, 332 equilibrium with N02 and N205, 267-268 formation in nitrogen dioxide oxidation, 8, 267

hydroperoxyl radical reaction, 235 indoors, 860

lifetime in ambient air, 277 mass accommodation coefficient, 307 measurement of, 559, 579-580 nitric oxide reaction, 276 nitrogen dioxide reaction, 8, 267-268, 276 oxygen-containing organics, reactions with, 214

a-phellandrene reaction, 234 photochemistry, 101 a-pinene reaction, 234 pinonaldehyde, reaction with, 234 sodium bromide, reaction with, 279 sodium chloride, reaction with, 279 relative humidity, effect on lifetime, 277 from sulfate radical anion-nitrate reaction,

277-278 sulfur (IV), reaction with, 278 terpinene, reaction with, 234 thermal decomposition, 276 water, uptake into and reaction with, 277-278 Nitrates alkylperoxy, thermal decomposition of,

217-220 in coarse particles, 384-385 in fine particles, 385 infrared spectroscopy, 398 organic absorption spectra and photochemistry, 102-106 in ambient air, 399, 594-595 formation in nitrate radical-alkene reactions, 201-205 in urban aerosols, 399 Nitric acid absorption spectra, 98 in acid rain and fogs, 294 ammonia reaction, 282-284 ammonium formate, reaction with, 286 calcium carbonate, reaction with, 286

dry deposition, 33

diffusion denuder measurement method, 567-568

from dinitrogen pentoxide hydrolysis,

279-280 formaldehyde reaction, 241 Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and,550-552 hydroxyl radical reaction, 281-282 infrared spectrometry and, 551-552 intercomparison studies of, in ambient air, 576-577

measurement techniques, 551-552, 575-578

nitrogen dioxide oxidation to, 272 nitrous acid reaction, 241 photochemistry, 98 in smog chambers, 264-265, 274 sodium chloride reaction, 284-285, 379, 383

soot, reactions with 285-286 tunable dioxide laser spectrometry and, 552 Nitric oxide alkylperoxy radical reaction, 185-186 annual global emissions, 17-18 aqueous phase reactions, 268-269 chemiluminescence monitoring with, 548 concentrations in troposphere, 574-575 Criegee intermediate reactions, 201 hydroperoxyl radical reaction, 235 hydroxyl radical reaction, 274 Leighton relationship, 265-266 measurement techniques, 548, 563-565, 569-570

nitrogen dioxide and water reaction,

271-272 potential energy curves, 564 REMPI spectrum, 564 thermal oxidation by 02, 265 Nitriles, measurement of, 566 Nitrite ion hydroxyl radical reaction, 275 oxidation during freezing, 275 photolysis of, in aqueous solution, 317 Nitrites, organic, 221 Nitrogen dioxide in aqueous solution, 268-269 absorption spectra, 95-96 alcohols, reactions with, 272 alkene reaction, 206, 272 alkoxy radical reactions, 191 alkylperoxy radical reactions, 187-188 aqueous phase reactions, 268-269 concentrations in the troposphere,

574-575 dimer, see dinitrogen tetroxide heterogeneous reaction, with water, 269-272

hydrogen atom abstraction from organics, 272

hydroxyl radical reaction, 266-267 interface reaction, 158, 269 Leighton relationship, 265-266 light intensity measurements using, 75-76, 877-878

measurement of, 555, 559-565 mineral oxides, reactions with, 273 nitrate radical reaction, 267-268 nitrous acid production by, 269-272 oxidation to nitric acid, 266-269 ozone reaction, 267 photochemistry, 96-97 sea salt particles, reaction with, 272-273 sodium bromide, reaction with, 272-273 sodium chloride, reaction with, 272-273, 383

sulfur dioxide, reaction in aqueous solution, 315 water, reaction with, 268-272 Nitrogen trioxide, see Nitrate radical Nitrosamines carcinogenic, 223 measurement of, 566 photolysis, 223 sources, 223 /V-Nitrosamines, see Nitrosamines Nitrosyl bromide, BrNO, 273 Nitrosyl chloride, C1NO absorption spectra, 117, 120, 121 from nitrous acid-hydrogen chloride reaction, 275-276 photochemistry, 117 from reaction with NaCl, 273, 383 Nitrous acid absorption spectra, 99 and aerosol particles, 271 from allylic hydrogen atom abstraction, 272 amine reaction, 223 in aqueous solution, 268-270 concentrations in troposphere, 581 differential optical absorption spectrometry, 559

direct emissions from combustion systems, 274

from formaldehyde-nitric acid reaction, 241

hydrogen chloride, reaction with, 275-276 as hydroxyl radical source, 7, 273 hydroxyl radical reaction, 274-275 ice, uptake onto, 275 indoor formation, 273 mass accommodation coefficient, 271 measurement of, 552, 559, 580-581 nitric acid reaction, 241 from nitric oxide-hydroxyl radical reaction, 274 from nitrogen dioxide reaction heterogeneous reaction on surfaces,

269-271 with hydroperoxyl radical, 274 with nitric oxide, 271-272 on soot, 271 nitrous oxide formation from, 271, 275 from peroxynitric acid, 274 photochemistry, 8, 99 photolysis of, 99, 275 sources, 8

sulfur dioxide reaction with, 314-315 sulfuric acid solutions, uptake into, 275 surface sinks and sources, 271

Nitrous oxide absorption spectra, 101-102 biological emissions, 17-18, 779-780 concentrations in troposphere, 780 global warming potential, 785 ice core data, 780 isotopic composition, 780 measurement techniques for, 565 from nitrous acid, 271, 814 photochemistry, 101-102 radiative forcing estimate, 785 stratospheric role, 661-662 Nitryl bromide (BrN02) and iodide (IN02)

formation, 280-281 Nitryl chloride, C1N02 absorption spectrum, 117, 120, 121 photochemistry, 117 formation, 280-281, 383 NMHC, Nonmethane hydrocarbons, see Organic compounds NMOC, Nonmethane organic compounds, see Organic compounds NO, see Nitric oxide N02, see Nitrogen dioxide NO,, see Nitrate radical NO, concentrations in troposphere, 574-575, 915

definition, 4, 264

measurement techniques for, 573-574 in smog chambers, 264-265 NO,.

concentrations in troposphere, 574-575 definition, 264, 286

measurement techniques for, 570-573 "missing," 205, 286 in smog chambers, 264-265 NOz, definition, 916 N20, see Nitrous oxide N203, see Dinitrogen trioxide N204, see Dinitrogen tetroxide N205, see Dinitrogen pentoxide Nondispersive infrared spectroscopy,

554-555 Nucleation of particles, 375-378

0 0

Post a comment