Info

butanol, benzene, toluene

Paint

Dibutyl phthalate

Acrylic sealant

Hexane, dimethyloctanols

Creosote-impregnated timber

Naphthalene, methylnaphthalenes

" Adapted from Tichenor and Mason (1988), Crump (1995), Reiss et al. (1995b), and Wolkoff (1998).

" Adapted from Tichenor and Mason (1988), Crump (1995), Reiss et al. (1995b), and Wolkoff (1998).

n-dodecane, n-decane, and n-undecane, the xylenes, and 2-propanol have been measured in new buildings, and the total VOC concentration is generally larger (by factors of 4-23) compared to established buildings (Brown et al., 1994).

Kostiainen (1995) identified more than 200 individual VOCs indoors in 26 houses. In addition, they compared the VOC concentrations in normal houses to those where complaints of odors or illness had been registered. A number of different VOCs were present at increased concentrations in the houses with complaints compared to the normal houses; these included a variety of aromatic hydrocarbons, methylcyclohexane, n-propylcyclohexane, terpenes, and chlorinated compounds such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane and tetra-chlorethene.

Carpets are a major source of VOCs in homes. For example, Sollinger et al. (1993, 1994) have identified 99

different VOCs emitted from a group of fO carpet samples, and Schaeffer et al. (1996) identifed more than 100 different VOCs emitted from the carpet cushion alone. Emissions come not only from the carpet fibers but also from the backing materials and the adhesives used to bind the carpet to the backing. As a result, the individual compounds emitted by carpets can vary substantially, depending on the carpet construction. For example, Table 15.6 shows some of the compounds emitted by three different types of carpets: (1) with a styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) latex adhesive to bind the primary and secondary backings; (2) with a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) secondary backing and made in the form of tiles; and (3) with a polyurethane foam secondary backing. With the SBR adhesive, the major VOCs emitted are 4-phenylcyclohexene (responsible for the "new carpet" smell) and styrene. With the PVC backing, the major compounds are vinyl ac-

TABLE 15.5 Overall Weighted Average Geometric Mean Concentrations of Some Individual VOCs Indoors"

Number of Concentration

Compound Type of building measurements (p-gm ')

Hydrocarbons n-Hexane n-Nonane n-Decane

Camphene

Limonene

Benzene

Toluene

Ethylbenzene o-Xylene m- and /ยป-xylene

1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene

1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene m-Methylethylbenzene

Oxygenated organics Acetone Methanol Ethanol Acetic acid Butyric acid Methyl ethyl ketone Diethyl ketone Phenol Nonanal Ethyl acetate

Chlorinated organics Dichloromethane Chloroform 1,2-Dichloroethene 1,1,1-Trichloroethane Tetrachloroethene p-Dichlorobenzene

Dwelling

Office

Dwelling

Dwelling

Mobile home

Dwelling

Dwelling

Dwelling

Dwelling

Dwelling

Dwelling

Dwelling

Office

Office

Dwelling

School

Dwelling

School

School

Dwelling

School

School

Dwelling

Dwelling

School

Dwelling

Office

Dwelling

Dwelling

Dwelling

Dwelling

0 0

Post a comment