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CNG Diesel #1 Diesel #2 E93/E95 M100 Fuel type

FIGURE 16.42 Measured emissions of (a) particles (PM) and (b) NOa. from more than 300 buses and heavy-duty trucks running on compressed natural gas (CNG), two diesel fuels, or alcohol fuels (E93, E95, and M100). The bars are the means and the boxes encompass the 95% confidence intervals. E93 = 93% ethanol, 5% methanol, 2% K-l kerosene; E95 = 95% ethanol, 5% gasoline; M100 = 100% methanol (adapted from Wang et al., 1997).

CNG Diesel #1 Diesel #2 E93/E95 M100 Fuel type

FIGURE 16.42 Measured emissions of (a) particles (PM) and (b) NOa. from more than 300 buses and heavy-duty trucks running on compressed natural gas (CNG), two diesel fuels, or alcohol fuels (E93, E95, and M100). The bars are the means and the boxes encompass the 95% confidence intervals. E93 = 93% ethanol, 5% methanol, 2% K-l kerosene; E95 = 95% ethanol, 5% gasoline; M100 = 100% methanol (adapted from Wang et al., 1997).

chemical components of the secondary particles consist largely of sulfate, nitrate, and complex polar organics, all of which are formed by oxidation processes in the VOC-NOx system. This again suggests that control strategies applied to ozone should also impact the formation of secondary particles. For example, less NOx might be expected to give less particle nitrate in general, and less VOC should reduce the formation of secondary organics, including those in particles. The actual relationship will be more complicated than a one-to-one correlation, of course, in that the concentrations of reactive species such as OH needed to carry out the oxidations are also affected, but not in a linear manner, by changes in VOC and NOx. A model for examining such relationships between individual organics and the production of secondary aerosol particles is discussed by Bowman et al. (1995).

Trends in particulate matter with diameters less than 10 /jum, PMU), in the Los Angeles air basin from 1985 to 1994 are shown in Fig. 16.43 (Prasad, personal communication, 1997). A downward trend in both the mean and the maximum levels is evident, occurring along with similar trends in 03, NOx, and particulate nitrate and sulfate in this region (see Figs. 16.36 and 16.37). This is qualitatively consistent with expectations

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