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Aerosol inlet

FIGURE 9.21 Schematic diagram of an integrating nephelometer (from Charlson et al., 1967).

Aerosol inlet

FIGURE 9.21 Schematic diagram of an integrating nephelometer (from Charlson et al., 1967).

observer's eyes; simultaneously, sunlight is scattered into the line of sight, making dark objects appear lighter. The result is a decrease in the contrast between the object and the horizon. At night, scattering of light out of the visual path decreases the contrast and hence the source intensity becomes a factor in visual range as well.

The Koschmieder equation has been shown to approximate the change in contrast of an object with distance away from an observer (Middleton, 1952); note that it has a form similar to that of the Beer-Lambert law:

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