Global Tropospheric Chemistry and Climate Change

A. RADIATION BALANCE OF THE ATMOSPHERE: THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT 763

1. Global Absorption and Emission of Radiation 763

2. Radiative Transfer Processes in the Atmosphere 766

a. Macroscopic View 766

b. Molecular'Level View 767

c. From Molecules to the Global Atmosphere 768

3. Dependence of Net Infrared Absorption on Atmospheric Concentrations 769

B. CONTRIBUTION OF TRACE GASES TO THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT 770

1. Infrared Absorption by Trace Gases 770

2. Trends in Trace Gas Concentrations 773

a. C02 773

b. CH4 777

c. N20 779

e. CFCs, HCFCs, and HFCs 783

f. Other Gases 783

3. Radiative Forcing by Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming Potentials 783

a. Instantaneous and Adjusted Radiative Forcing 783

b. Absolute and Relative Global Warming Potentials 784

C. AEROSOL PARTICLES, ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION, AND CLIMATE CHANGE 788

1. Direct Effects 789

a. Scattering of Solar Radiation 789

b. Absorption of Solar Radiation 796

c. Absorption of Long'Wavelength Infrared 798

2. Indirect Effects of Aerosol Particles 799

a. Clouds 799

b. Heterogeneous Chemistry Involving Climate Species 814

D. SOME OTHER FACTORS AFFECTING GLOBAL CLIMATE 814

1. Absorption of Solar Radiation by Clouds 814

2. Feedbacks: Water Vapor, Clouds, and the "Supergreenhouse Effect" 819

3. Solar Variability 821

4- Volcanic Eruptions 822 5. Oceans 822

E. OBSERVATIONS OF CLIMATE CHANGES 823

1. Observed Temperature Trends 823

a. Trends over the Past Century 823

b. Temperatures and Other Proxies for Climate Change over the Past ~ 105 Years 825

2. Other Climate Changes 828

F. THE FUTURE 828

G. PROBLEMS 829 REFERENCES 829

0 0

Post a comment