Cyclopenta[c<i]pyrene is a significant contributor to the total mass of biologically active, particle-associated PAHs in emissions from light- and heavy-duty diesel engines, e.g., 869-1671 /¿g/g of extract vs 208-588 p,g/g of extract for BaP (Tong and Karasek, 1984, in Table 6 in IARC, 1989; see also, e.g., Westerholm et al., 1991), and from gasoline engines without catalytic converters, e.g., 750-987 yu-g/L of combusted fuel vs 50-81 /¿g/L of BaP (see Table 10 in IARC, 1989; and Westerholm et al. (1988). For a comparison of cyclopenta[c<i]pyrene emissions (and other PAHs) from California automobiles with catalytic converters (low emissions) and without catalysts (high emissions) and for heavy-duty diesel trucks, see Rogge et al. (1993a), Hannigan et al. (1994), and Schauer et al. (1996); for medium-duty diesel trucks, see Schauer et al. (1999); see also Westerholm and Egeback (1994) for results from the Swedish Urban Air Project.
Cyclopenta[cd]pyrene is also present in ambient aerosols collected in urban airsheds throughout the world at levels approximately equal to those of BaP and in some locations at significantly higher concen trations, e.g., Elverum, Norway (Ramdahl, 1983a); Kokkola, Finland (Pyysalo et al., 1987); La Spezia, Italy (Barale et al., 1994); London, England (Baek et al., 1992); Copenhagen, Denmark (Nielsen et al., 1996); in "an industrial city" in Germany (Grimmer and Misfeld, 1983); Taiwan (Lee et al., 1995); and at six sites at selected locations in California (Atkinson et al., 1988a). Furthermore, in their study of concentrations of 86 vapor-phase, semivolatile, and particle-phase aromatics in ambient Los Angeles smog (during two very hot days in September 1993), Fraser and co-workers (1998) reported cyclopenta-[ct/]pyrene was not only present in both the gas and particle phases but also that there was almost twice as much in the vapor phase, 0.26 (gas) vs 0.14 ng m~3 (particles).
Given its demonstrated toxicology, relatively high levels in diesel exhaust and non-catalyst-equipped motor vehicles, widespread distribution in ambient air, and unique structure-reactivity aspects, further research on the fundamental and applied atmospheric chemistry and toxicology of cyclopenta-[cd]pyrene would seem useful.
Cy c I ope n t a[ cd ] py re n e (CPP, XXVIII) is a powerful human cell mutagen in strain hlAlv2, ~7 times more potent than BaP (Durant et al., 1996; Hannigan et al., 1998), and a strong promutagen in both the Ames Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay (Eisenstadt and Gold, 1978) and the Salmonella typhimurium strain TM677 forward mutation assay (Kaden et al., 1979):
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