Tables

2.1 Values of sea areas, average ice extent, ice extent changes for 100 years, variance of ice extent series, and their ratios 12

2.2 Estimates of the linear trend coefficients of Eurasian Arctic Seas ice extent and their confidence intervals at 95% significance level 15

2.3 Seasonal linear trend changes in ice extent for the Barents Sea for 1945-2000 15

2.4 Percentage contribution of the main frequencies to the variability of total ice extents in August in the western and eastern Eurasian Arctic seas 18

2.5 Average amplitudes of "60-year" components of ice extent and corresponding variance, along with its contribution to the total variability of the ice extent of the seas 22

2.6 Statistical characteristics of "60-year" components of ice extent variation. . . 25

2.7 Duration of a 6-7-year cycle and the number of cases of its occurrence during the period 1933-1999 26

2.8 Amplitudes of 6-7-year cycles and their effects on multiyear variability of the Arctic Seas ice extent 26

3.1 Average thickness of landfast ice during different climate periods in the Arctic

3.2 Observation data and results of calculations of the ice thickness growth during the icebreaker G. Sedov expedition and at the NP-32, NP-33, and NP-34 drifting stations 34

4.1 Characteristics of mean annual twentieth century air temperature variation in three zones 40

4.2 Changes in the ice cover area in August from the beginning to the end of the circulation cycles in Arctic Ocean regions 47

4.3 Average high-latitude zonality index values for anticyclonic and cyclonic regimes (1949-1997) 47

4.4 Correlation coefficients between the long-period fluctuations of the area of ice exported through Fram Strait (October-August) and total ice area of the Arctic

Seas Asian shelf in August for the period 1931-2000 at different time lags . . 61

4.5 Correlation coefficients of relationships between the boundaries of prevailing old ice at the end of winter; the value of the marginal seas' ice exchange with the Arctic Basin; and the boundary of close ice at the end of the preceding summer in the Laptev, East Siberian, and Chukchi Seas 71

4.6 Role of variability in the location of residual ice and ice exchange with the Arctic Basin in the formation of the old ice boundary at meridians of the Laptev, East Siberian, and Chukchi Seas at the end of winter 72

4.7 Years of salinity maximums and minimums in the upper water layer, vorticity of the wind fields, and corresponding lag values in two regions of the Arctic Ocean, the Greenland Sea, and the Arctic Basin 78

4.8 Linear trends in river runoff by region and time 85

5.1 Wolf numbers, cyclonicity indices in the western and eastern regions of the Arctic Ocean, and total sea ice extent in the western and eastern regions during cycles of increased and decreased solar activity lasting 17-22 years 98

5.2 Wolf number averages for periods of increased and decreased solar activity, cyclonicity indices for the western and eastern regions of the Arctic Ocean, and total sea ice extent in the western and eastern Eurasian regions 99

6.1 Average duration of unescorted through navigation along the NSR in relation to total ice extent in the Eurasian Arctic Seas 116

6.2 Characteristics of ice extent anomalies in the Arctic seas in August 2007 ... 126

6.3 Ice extent values recorded in the Eurasian Arctic Seas in August 2007 and 2008 128

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