Consistency among sea ice extent and atmospheric and hydrospheric processes

The variability and state of the Arctic sea ice cover strongly depend on atmospheric conditions as well as ocean dynamic and thermodynamic processes (Alekseev, 1976; Appel and Gudkovich, 1992; Gudkovich et al., 1972; Doronin, 1969; Doronin and Kheisin, 1975; Zakharov, 1981; Zubov, 1938, 1944; Shuleikin, 1953; Wadhams, 1994). A number of parameters influence the direction and intensity of these processes. The most significant are: the surface air temperature, wind, oceanic boundary layers and their stratification, and ocean circulation.

In order to understand the causes of long-term changes in the ice cover, it is necessary to define the temporal and spatial relationships of the sea ice cover with all the factors mentioned above. This section analyzes the connections of various large-scale processes to climatic changes, as considered in Gudkovich and Kovalev (1997).

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