C

Total production of phytoplankton, 103 t C per day in the Greenland (a), Norwegian (b), Barents (c), Kara (d), Laptev (e), East Siberian (f), and Chukchi (g) seas. Fig. 7. Total production of phytoplankton, 103 t C per day in the Greenland (a), Norwegian (b), Barents (c), Kara (d), Laptev (e), East Siberian (f), and Chukchi (g) seas. Table 3. Trends of primary production and flux of organic carbon to seafloor in the Arctic Seas ( year-1 from mean value for period of observation). Sea...

Struggle for the Lomonosov Ridge

The Arctic legal policy of Russia is a matter of the future. In summer 2007 Russia made an attempt to establish sovereignty over its part of the continental shelf. Bathyscaphs Mir-1 and Mir-2 reached the seabed near the North Pole, took ground samples and installed the state flag of Russia on the seabed. In 2009 it is planned to submit an application to the Commission on Borders on the Continental Shelf for joining the Lomonosov and Mendeleev ridges to the Russian continental shelf. Commission...

Foodweb functioning

In this section, we examine the general functioning of the pelagic food web. In order to do so, we group various key food-web processes under three broad food-web functions photosynthetic production (net of autotrophic respiration), which is due to phytoplankon (i.e. microbes), microbial heterotrophic activity, which is due to bacteria and protozoa, and metazoan activity, which is due to organisms larger than microbes (i.e. metazoa). The resulting conceptual model is shown in Fig. 2. Net...

Frontal zones in the Barents

The structure and characteristics of the North Polar Frontal Zone in different regions of the Barents Sea differ rather strongly. There was very little information on the frontal zones in the Barents Sea in the literature. Detailed definitions of these zones are either absent in the literature or have a local and incidental character. An attempt to distinguish and describe the system of frontal zones of the Barents Sea based on a number of large-scale surveys was undertaken by Chvilev (1990,...

Definitions

Frontal Variability Barents Sea

In published works on fronts the authors, as a rule, use various definitions of the terms frontal zone, frontal interface, front, frontal line. The differences in definitions are related to the concepts of frontal zones accepted by the different authors. Each definition is acceptable and generally applicable to resolve specific problems and describe certain aspects of the investigated phenomenon. Stepanov (1960) noted a connection of the frontal phenomena with convergences in the ocean....

Mesoscale atmospheric vortices in the Okhotsk and Bering Seas results of satellite multisensor study

Il'ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, Russia, mitnik poi.dvo.ru Winter mesoscale cyclones (MCs) are frequently formed over the northern Asian Marginal Seas. They are often associated with precipitation and severe winds causing ice drift and serious disturbance in fishery and transport operation at the sea. Mesocyclones are difficult to forecast because of their rapid evolution and movement. Climatological occurrence of...

The North Atlantic Oscillation NAO

The NAO dictates much of the Climate variability from the eastern seaboard of North America to Siberia and from the Arctic to the subtropical Atlantic, especially during the boreal winter (Hurrett et al. 2003). NAO refers to a redistribution of atmospheric mass between the Arctic and subtropical Atlantic. The NAO is traditionally described by two weather maps showing the distribution of sea level pressure (SLP) over the North Atlantic in two typical educational situations NAO+ and NAO- when the...

The effects of irradiance and nutrient supply on the productivity of Arctic waters a perspective on climate change

Jean- ric Tremblay and Jonathan Gagnon D partement de Biologie and Qu bec Oc an, Pavillon Alexandre-Vachon, Universit Laval, Qu bec, QC, Canada G1V OA6, Jean-Eric.Tremblay bio.ulaval.ca A previous analysis of published data suggested that annual, pelagic primary production in the Arctic Ocean is related linearly to the duration of the ice-free period, presumably through cumulative exposure to solar irradiance. However, the regions with the longest ice-free periods are located in peripheral seas...

Mesoscale cyclones Okhotsk

The most remarkable features visible on the Envisat ASAR image and shown in Fig. 2c are two cyclonic mesoscale lows located to the west of Kamchatka coast. Convective vortices are also well distinguished in a field of cloudiness on NOAA AVHRR, Terra and Aqua MODIS and GOES-9 Fig. 2. Mesoscale cyclones over the Okhotsk Sea to the west of Kamchatka on 3 January 2004 (a) and (c) 89-GHz, H-polarization Aqua AMSR-E brightness temperature (Kelvin degrees) at 02 25 (a) and at...

Ocean parameters

Salinity and temperature profiles, collected during the summer mooring surveys show that the coldest water (-1.7 C) in summer is found at mid-depth. It has a salinity of 32.8-33.0 and represents water mass remnants of the winter surface mixed layer (Prinsenberg and Hamilton 2005). Above this water mass lies a very stable surface layer formed by dilution by ice melt and local runoff and warming by the atmospheric heat flux. The warmest and freshest water is organized into buoyancy boundary...

Discussion and conclusion

Presented results proved that the Atlantic-Arctic climate system components are closely interrelated. Moreover, fluctuations in the Atlantic SST modulated corresponding oscillations in many other subsystems Eastern Arctic ice extent, land surface pressure, SST in shelf seas, surface air temperatures in North Asia. The key to the new climate change outlook is the natural cycle of ocean temperatures called the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), which is closely related to the warm currents...

Conclusion

Due to the eastward-setting Arctic surface waters found along the southern shore of Lancaster Sound, the mean currents there are large (15.3 cm s) as compared to smaller westward-setting mean currents of 2.2 cm s along the northern shore. Standard deviations about the 8 year mean are 21.5 and 15.0 cm s respectively for the southern and northern shore sites, while maximum values can reach up to 150 cm s. Bi-monthly mean velocities reach up to 50 cm s in summer months along the southern shore,...

Frontal zones in the Bering

The Bering Sea is a northward extension of the Pacific Ocean between Siberia and Alaska. Separated from the Pacific Ocean by the Aleutian Islands, it is connected with the Arctic Ocean via the Bering Strait. The general circulation in the Bering Sea is complicated and variable due to the interaction of wind, water inflow through the Aleutian Islands, tides, bottom relief and other factors (Fig. 7). The main feature of the circulation is a general cyclonic motion in the deep basin, the so-called...

Production of phytoplankton in the Arctic Seas and its response on recent warming

Romankevich P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, vetrov ocean.ru, romankevich mail.ru New maps of the mean monthly distribution of the primary production in the Arctic Seas of Russia (Barents, Kara, Laptev, East Siberian, and Chukci Seas) were compiled using joint processing of CZCS (1978-1986), SeaWiFS (1998-2007), MODIS (2002-2007) satellite data, and field measurements. The annual production of phytoplankton is...

Wind forcing

The volume transport data were compared with NCEP (National Centre for Atmospheric Prediction) monthly surface wind data (sigma level 0.995), which has a grid spacing of 2.5 latitude by 2.5 longitude (Peterson 2008). Multiple correlation coefficients with the observed transports were computed using monthly mean wind data at each grid point (i,j) north of 55 N, and a regression model of the form M aijUij + bijVij + cij + e (1) where M is volume transport, Uj is the zonal wind component, Vj is...

Oceanography and surveillance of the rapidly changing Arctic and Sub Arctic

Recent investigations suggest that current atmospheric models underestimate future global warming. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates that the global average temperature could increase as much as 5.8 C by the end of the 21st century. But these estimates don't factor in some feedback mechanisms that may be triggered by rising temperatures. For instance, accelerated decomposition in soils and changes in ocean chemistry may add considerably to greenhouse gases and further...

Oil and gas of Russian Arctic

At present here more than over 100 million tons of oil are produced here. Among the ten major oilfields there are Samotlor, Priobsky, Fedorovsky, Lyantorsky, Mamontovsky and others. In 1989 in the Pechora Sea shelf (950 km from Murmansk) the Prirazlomnoye oilfield was discovered. Initial geological reserves are evaluated at 230 million tons. By 2010 it is planned to extract 7.5 million tons of oil a year in the Prirazlomnoye oilfield. Oil delivery by tankers....

The Arctic Zone of Russia AZR

It is generally known that the Arctic is an area around the Earth's North Pole including the Arctic Ocean with its seas and islands and also the margins of Eurasia and North America surrounding it. There are many notions of the Arctic and, thus, determination of its borders. The southern border of Arctic coincides with the southern boundary of the tundra zone its area being 27 million square kilometer. If we limit Arctic in the south by the Northern Polar Circle, then its area will be 21...

Modulation of the ice extent in Kara

Natural variability, such as that associated with the AMO and NAO, and other circulation patterns, has and will continue to have strong impacts on the Arctic sea-ice cover. Links between altered ocean heat transport and observed ice loss remain to be resolved, as does the attribution of these transport changes, but pulses such as those currently poised to enter the Arctic Ocean from the Atlantic could provide a trigger for a rapid transition. We are not yet capable of predicting exactly when...

Simulation of the AMSRE brightness temperatures and retrieval algorithm development

Microwave radiometers measure the outgoing emission of the underlying surface-atmosphere system in several frequencies v and polarizations. The measured parameter is antenna temperature (brightness temperature TB(v) after calibration). Contribution of the underlying surface in the measured TB(v) is defined by the relation TB(v) TS Kv) where TS is the surface temperature and k is the emissivity. For the frequencies between about 7 and 90 GHz used by AMSR-E, the emissivity of the sea surface can...

Physiological characteristics large standing stocks and unique positions of microbes in pelagic food webs

The special roles of microbes in food webs and biogeochemical cycles are often explained by some of their physiological characteristics coupled with their large standing stocks. The physiological characteristics include high turnover and growth rates, e.g. up to 5 day-1 for phytoplankton), 3 day-1 (bacteria) and 1 day-1 (protozoplankton) (White et al. 1991 Ducklow and Carlson 1992 Rose and Caron 2007 Bec et al. 2008) a wide range of C N ratios, e.g. 6.6 to > 12 (phytoplankton), 4-4.5...

Satellites and sensors

The potential of satellite retrievals for PL studies was demonstrated in many papers (Claud et al. 1993, 2004 Carleton et al. 1995 Heinemann 1995 Heinemann and Claud 1997 McMurdie et al. 1997 Mitnik et al. 1996, 2004, 2007 Moore and Vonder Haar 2003 Rasmussen and Turner 2003). Registration of warm core in polar lows from the measurements of brightness temperature at frequency 53.6 GHz by the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit on a board of NOAA-15 (Moore and Vonder Haar 2003) and obtaining...

River water and sediment discharges

Mean multi-annual river water and suspended matter discharges for the main six Arctic rivers are shown in Table. Data are from the Roskomgidromet database for the period 1970-1995. Total discharge from the Eurasian territory into the Table. River water, suspended particulate matter and organic carbon fluxes to the Arctic Ocean (Gordeev et al. 1996 Gordeev 2000 Gordeev and Rachold 2003) Table. River water, suspended particulate matter and organic carbon fluxes to the Arctic Ocean (Gordeev et al....