Abbreviations

AAAS American Association for the Advancement of Science

ACIA Arctic Climate Impact Assessment

ACSYS Arctic Climate System Study

ADEOS Advanced Earth Observing Satellite

AGCM Atmospheric Global Climate Model (or General Circulation Model)

AGU American Geophysical Union

AH Azores High

AMIP Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project

AMS American Meteorological Society

AO Arctic Oscillation

AOGCM Atmosphere-Ocean Global Climate Model (or General Circulation Model)

AOMIP Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project

APP Arctic Polar Pathfinder

ARCMIP Arctic Regional Climate Model Intercomparison Project

ARCSS Arctic System Science Program

ARCSyM Arctic Regional Climate System Model

ASOF Arctic-Subarctic Ocean Fluxes Program

ASR Arctic System Reanalysis

AVHRR Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

AWS Automatic Weather Station

BOREAS Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study

CCN Cloud Condensation Nuclei

CFC Chlorofluorocarbon

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List of Abbreviations

CHAMP

Community-wide Hydrologie Analysis and Modeling Program

CHASM

Chameleon Surface Model

CISK

Conditional Instability of the Second Kind

CLASS

Canadian Land Surface Scheme

CliC

Climate and Cryosphere program

COADS

Comprehensive Ocean Atmosphere Data Set

CRYSYS

Cryosphere System in Canada program

DAO

Data Assimilation Office

DEWLINE

Distant Early Warning Line

DMSP

Defense Meteorological Satellite Program

D-O

Dansgaard-Oeschger cycle

DOE

Department of Energy

DU

Dobson Unit

ECMWF

European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts

ELA

Equilibrium Line Altitude

ENSO

El-Nino Southern Oscillation

EOF

Empirical Orthogonal Function

EP

Eliassen-Palm flux

ERA-15

ECMWF 15-year reanalysis project

ERA-40

ECMWF 40-year reanalysis project

ERBE

Earth Radiation Budget Experiment

ESMR

Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer

ET

Evapo-transpiration

FYI

Firstyear Ice

GCM

Global Climate Model (or General Circulation Model)

GC-Net

Greenland Climate Network

GEWEX

Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment

GFDL

Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory

GIN

Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian sea

GISP2

Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2

GPP

Gross Primary Production

GRIP

Greenland Ice Core Project

GSA

Great Salinity Anomaly

HARC

Human Dimensions of the Arctic System

HIRLAM

High Resolution Limited Area Model

HR

Heterotrophic Respiration

HTM

Holocene Thermal Maximum

IABP

International Arctic Buoy Program

ICE Sat

Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite

IGY

International Geophysical Year

IL Icelandic Low

IPA International Permafrost Association

IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

IPY International Polar Year

IRD Ice Rafted Detritus

ISCCP International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project

JMA Japan Meteorological Agency

LAII Land-Atmosphere-Ice Interactions Program

LGM Last Glacial Maximum

LIA Little Ice Age

LSM Land Surface Model

MIP Model Intercomparison Project

MIS Marine Isotope Stage

MIZ Marginal Ice Zone

MMC Mean Meridional Circulation

MM5: Pennsylvania State University/NCAR Fifth Generation Mesoscale Model

MODIS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer

MYI Multiyear Ice

NADW North Atlantic Deepwater

NAM Northern Annular Mode

NAO North Atlantic Oscillation

NARR North American Regional Reanalysis

NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NCAR National Center for Atmospheric Research

NCEP National Centers for Environmental Prediction

NDVI Normalized Difference Vegetation Index

NEP Net Ecosystem Production

NIC National Ice Center

NMF Net Mass Flux

NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NP North Pole (drifting station program)

NPO North Pacific Oscillation

NPP Net Primary Production

NSF National Science Foundation

NSIDC National Snow and Ice Data Center

NWP Numerical Weather Prediction

OAII

Ocean-Atmosphere-Ice Interactions Program

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List of Abbreviations

PACTS

Pan-Arctic Cycles, Transitions and Sustainability Program

PARCA

Program for Arctic Regional Climate Assessment

PARCS

Paleo-environmental Arctic Studies Program

PC

Principal Component

PDO

Pacific Decadal Oscillation

P-ET

Precipitation minus Evapo-transpiration

PILPS

Project for Intercomparison of Land Surface Parameterization Schemes

PIZ

Perennial Ice Zone

PNA

Pacific North America teleconnection pattern

PSC

Polar Stratospheric Cloud

PV

Potential Vorticity

PW

Petawatt

QBO

Quasi-Biennial Oscillation

RBL

Radiative Boundary Layer

SAR

Synthetic Aperture Radar

SAT

Surface Air Temperature

SCM

Single Column Model

SE

Stationary Eddy

SEARCH

Study of Environmental Arctic Change

SHEBA

Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean

SIC

Sea Ice Concentration

SIZ

Seasonal Ice Zone

SLP

Sea Level Pressure

SMMR

Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer

SMOW

Standard Mean Ocean Water

SO

Southern Oscillation

SSM/I

Special Sensor Microwave/Imager

SST

Sea Surface Temperature

SZA

Solar Zenith Angle

TE

Transient Eddy

TEM

Transformed Eulerian Mean

TEM

Terrestrial Ecosystem Model

TFP

Thermal Front Parameter

THC

Thermohaline Circulation

TIROS

Television Infrared Observation Satellite

TOA

Top of Atmosphere

TOMS

Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer

TOVS

TIROS Operational Vertical Spectrometer

TPDS

Transpolar Drift Stream

UHI

Urban Heat Island

ULS

Upward Looking Sonar

VHRR

Very High Resolution Radiometer

VIC

Variable Infiltration Capacity model

WCRP

World Climate Research Programme

WISHE

Wind Induced Surface Heat Exchange

YD

Younger Dryas

The evolution of knowledge about the Arctic and its climate

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