Chapter 4. From Ice Ages to Bellwether for Global Warming: The Arctic in Climate Science and Policy provides a historical backdrop for today's discussion of climate change by outlining the development of climate science since the mid-1800s up until the late 1990s. It is based on a review of published literature and discusses developments in relation to various drivers, including international regimes and actor networks. The chapter specifically focuses on when and how the Arctic has been part of the climate change debate. It also provides a short presentation of recent international cooperation in the Arctic and thereby gives a context for the initiation of the ACIA.
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