A more versatile analytical toolbox

To summarize, although the concept of regimes is important to understanding the politics of knowledge production, its focus on issue-specific principles, norms, structures, and decision-making procedures may not be sufficient. First, a focus on structure needs to include attention to primary institutions of international society and their roles in strengthening the power of some knowledge traditions over others. Second, concepts from actor-network theory can be used for understanding the connections between the macro-level of the international system with the micro-level sociology of science that often is in focus in science and technology studies. Third, there is a need to study how, why, and when actor networks become solidified and gain power, not only through black-boxed technologies and scientific theories as discussed by Latour, but also by becoming part of formal political regimes. A fourth point to add is that political actors are not only states. In the ACIA, indigenous peoples' organizations were important transnational actors as were individual scientists and scientific organizations.

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