A joint process

As a result of AMAP's first assessment of climate change and ultraviolet radiation, the 1997 ministerial meeting of the Arctic Council in Alta endorsed that AMAP should continue activities for monitoring, data collection, exchange of data on the impacts of the effects of contaminants and their pathways, UV radiation and climate change on Arctic ecosystems with special emphasis on human health impacts and the effects of multiple stressors. It also states that the Senior Arctic Affairs Officials...

Species biodiversity and conservation

A word that ranks very high in frequency in ACIA is species. It is used much more often in the ACIA report than in either of the IPCC reports. For example, relative to the size of the report, it is used five times more often in ACIA' scientific report than in the polar chapter of IPCC's Working Group II report. This indicates an emphasis on biological framings that warrants a closer look. Is this an indication of biological knowledge being more in focus or is the word species connected to some...

A focus on regimes

International regimes are often defined as principles, norms, rules, and decision-making procedures around which actor expectations converge in a given issue area.19 In contrast to the realist focus on sovereign states seeking to maximize power through narrow calculations of interest, regime theory brought renewed attention to shared norms and principles as a guide for international activities.20 Regime theory is not about a system of world government similar to national political systems....

Transboundary air pollution and sustainable development

Even if climate change had become part of the agenda in some scientific circles, it was not a major societal issue in the 1960s and early 1970s. But the environment was. When Sweden was looking for ways to strengthen the United Nations the environment was thus a suitable theme during a time when the United Nations was plagued by East-West tensions and issues surrounding decolonization. The result was a Swedish initiative for the United Nations to organize a conference on the environment. This...

A short history

Regime theory dates back to the study of international law in medieval Europe. In modern international relations scholarship, it has an early expression in a belief in international institutions for promoting peace after World War I, which became known as the idealist school. In the 1930s, the failure of the League of Nations led to a debate be tween the idealists and a new generation of realists who wanted to distance themselves from the normative character of idealism.1 The modern realism...

Global climate change

Since climate change started to be recognized as a major environmental challenge, there has been increasing concern about its impacts on society. These impacts include higher average global temperatures as well as increasing risks for weather extremes and rising sea levels that can inundate low-lying coastal areas and islands. According to the 2007 report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the warming of the global climate is now unequivocal. The IPCC also concludes that...

The review

In the summer of 2003, the first official draft of the complete scientific report was sent out for review. The reviewers had been selected through nominations from the ACIA Executive Committee, AMAP, CAFF, IASC, the Indigenous Peoples' Secretariat, and several national organizations. After further solicitation of nominees from the lead authors, the final selection was made by the Assessment Integration Team based on scientific balance, country balance and gender equity. All in all, 142...

Conclusions and discussion

Regional Knowledge Production and the Politics of Scale discusses the review of the history of climate science and the empirical study of the ACIA to reach the overall aim of this dissertation, which is to examine how the interplay of science and policy affects the framing of Arctic climate change. Specifically, this chapter discusses the politics of scale and how tensions between global, regional, and local perspectives play out in the ACIA. It also analyzes the role of structures...

Bibliography

Impacts of a Warming Arctic Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 2004. ACIA. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 2005. Adler, Emanuel. Seizing the Middle Ground Constructivism in World Politics, in European Journal of International Relations, 3, no. 3 (1997) 319-363. Agrawala, Shardul. Context and Early Origin of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, in Climate Change, 39 (1998) 605-620. Agrawala, Shardul....

Arctic images in the first IPCC assessment

The first IPCC report paid attention to the Arctic both in relation to its role in the global climate system and in relation to potential impacts. Examples of the former include a discussion of tundra and boreal wetlands as sources of methane, the role of ice-albedo feedbacks in climate models, and a discussion of the North Atlantic mixing of ocean water and heat transport. The first IPCC assessment also mentions that polar regions may warm two to three times more than the global mean and that...

Table of contents

CHAPTER 1. 1.1 The challenge of 1.2 Aim and research 1.3 Climate change and the 1.4 Key concepts and analytical points of 1.5 An interdisciplinary 1.6 Dissertation CHAPTER 2. INTERNATIONAL REGIMES AND KNOWLEDGE PRODUCTION 13 2.1 International environmental 2.2 Co-production of knowledge and political 2.3 An analytical 2.4 Chapter CHAPTER 3. RESEARCH 3.2 A case study 3.3 A multitude of 3.4 Finding ways through the empirical 3.5 Ethical 3.6 Situated 3.7 Notes on language and word 3.8 An...

The challenge of change

The global climate is changing at an increasingly rapid rate. Not only are air temperatures rising but there is also widespread melting of ice and rising sea levels. The consequences of this include more unpredictable weather patterns with increasing risks of both droughts and flooding.1 And climate change is only one of many changes to the Earth as a system. Other changes entail various biogeochemical cycles as well as economic, social, and cultural processes.2 Some even claim that the changes...

Interviews

Approximately 70 semi-structured interviews with people participating in the ACIA process were conducted. This included meetings with participants in the Assessment Integration Team, lead authors, and representatives of national delegations to the Arctic Council. A list of interviewees is presented in Appendix II. Some people were interviewed several times and, in total, the group that I talked to at one time or another included 56 people. The purpose of the interviews was to gather information...

An interdisciplinary dissertation

This is an interdisciplinary dissertation in that it does not draw on only one research tradition. It relates partly to the study of international relations and partly to science studies. Although methodologically and theoretically based in the social sciences, it is my hope to communicate with natural scientists interested in science-policy interactions or climate issues, as the empirical focus is on issues where the natural sciences have historically had center stage. This dissertation may...

Developments in polar research

The historical overview provided in this chapter also highlights important developments in polar research. Specifically, it shows the strong role of international collaboration, and even internationalism as an ideology, since the late 1800s, at least within climate-related research. This can be placed in contrast to the earlier polar research, where nationalistic motives and the building of new national images played a prominent role. There may still be commonalities most important is that...

Analysis of the policy process

During the policy process, it became increasingly clear that the Senior Arctic Officials reasserted their prerogative to have the initiative when it came to policy recommendations. The United States drove this issue, but appears to have had agreement on the basic principle from several other countries. Supporting this interpretation is the fact that some countries sent high-level climate negotiators to the Policy Drafting Team from the beginning. One can speculate why the United States did not,...

The Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy

The initial collaboration in the AEPS focused on preparing reports on different pollution issues, including organochlorines, heavy metals, acidification, noise, oil pollution, and radioactivity. According to Young, the new Arctic regime mirrored European experiences from working with pollution issues in the UNECE LRTAP.176 One of the early activities was an expert meeting in Oslo in 1990 that drafted a proposal for an Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), setting assessing...

Silence on gender

Another issue that the ACIA leaves largely out of the assessment is gender, i.e. to what extent women and men are impacted differently by climate change or have different adaptive capacities. There are a few mentions of the fact that impacts may be different on different groups in society, including men and women, but very limited analysis of how and why that may be the case. Words like gender, women and men are used very sparingly. It is only the health chapter, in a discussion on rapid change...

UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol

The UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol do not figure prominently in the ACIA scientific and overview documents, except for one issue carbon flux and storage. The connection is explicit in Chapter 18. Summary and Synthesis of the ACIA and is probably also important for the extensive treatment of carbon flux and storage in Chapter 14. Forests, Land Management and Agriculture and in Chapter 7. Arctic Tundra and Polar Desert Ecosystems. Documentation of the ACIA process illustrates that this emphasis is...

The Arctic Climate Impact Assessment ACIA

Climate change became a key issue on the Arctic political agenda in 2000, when the Arctic Council launched the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA). This was the first international regional climate impact assessment and its results have created major media attention since they became public in 2004.18 The ACIA provides an excellent opportunity to examine how international structures and various actors might affect knowledge production. It also allows for a first look at the potential and...

Understanding crossscale interactions

The lessons from the ACIA that are highlighted here fit well with an emerging, more general discussion about scale challenges. Cash et al. define this as a situation in which the current combination of cross-scale and cross-level interactions threatens to undermine the resilience of the human-environment system.9 In addition to the ignorance of scale and level issues and mismatches, they highlight the common assumption that there is a single, correct or best characterization of the scale and...

Theoretical and methodological framework

International Regimes and Knowledge Production presents the theoretical framework for the dissertation. It takes its starting point from international relations theory with a focus on the role of knowledge and international environmental regimes. It presents the basic epistemological premise in the dissertation - that scientific knowledge is socially constructed, and that this process can be best understood as co-construction between nature and culture society - and it goes on to...

Two tension fields

An issue that is common to both international relations theory and various approaches to understanding the nexus of power and knowledge is the relationship between structure and agency. This debate concerns the extent to which various actors shape a situation or if their actions are determined by a context or structure.91 For example, scholars using the regime concept tend to focus either on the various actors and their preferences, or the common structures that guide their behavior. Within the...

Documents in chronological order

Most official documents were obtained from electronic archives or websites at the indicated URLs. This includes material from the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA), the Arctic Council, the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Other documents have been obtained by contact with secretariats, as meeting material, or via personal contacts with participants in the ACIA...

Regional Knowledge Production and the Politics of Scale

In the previous chapters I have tried to answer the initial research question of how climate change is framed in the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA). Relying on documentation of the ACIA process, I have also attempted to answer to what extent different framings relate to specific structures of international cooperation. This chapter summarizes the main findings of my analysis of the ACIA and relates them to the overall aim of the dissertation to examine how the interplay between policy...

Info

Report of the 3rd Meeting of the Assessments Steering Committee and a Scoping Workshop, February 28 -March 1, 2000, Washington, DC, U.S.A. ACIA report No. 1. Arctic Council Senior Arctic Officials Meeting, Fairbanks, Alaska, April 27-28, 2000. Minutes revised 10 12 00. Summary Report of the 5th Assessment Steering Committee (ASC) Meeting, June 15-16, 2000, Danish Polar Center, Copenhagen, Denmark. Minutes from the Joint meeting between AMAP and CAFF regarding ACIA, September 4, 2000,...

The early phase

In documentation from early discussions about an Arctic climate impact assessment, there is no mention of a separate policy document. Rather, policy makers are seen as part of the process in producing a summary for policy makers, for example in an IASC discussion paper for successful assessments The selection of what's to be included 124 Annex 7 Minutes of the 3rd Joint AMAP- CAFF Meeting, Oslo, Norway 15.16 April 2004 in AMAP report 2004 1 Observation notes Joint AMAP-CAFF Meeting April 15-16,...

Ultraviolet radiation

Unique to the ACIA compared to the IPCC reports is that it includes a discussion of ozone depletion and impacts of ultraviolet (UV) radiation under the overall rubric of climate change. For example, there are frequent references to the word radiation, which for the most part refers to UV radiation. This is hardly a surprise as it was part of ACIA's mandate to also assess the impact of increasing UV radiation in connection 72 Interview Magdalena Muir, March 24, 2004 Interview Pal Prestrud, April...

The politics of scale

A key dimension to the framings of climate change in the ACIA is preferences for different spatial scales the global and to some extent a regional preference being emphasized by the Arctic climate systems' global role and by the local being in focus when complexity and interacting factors are emphasized. This section relates this finding to the analytical concepts of fit, interplay, and scale from the literature on institutional dimensions of global environmental change.2 The ACIA case shows...

A political platform combined with a scientific bridge

A key factor in the initiation of the ACIA was the presence of a regional regime that made the exercise salient, credible, and legitimate for key political actors in the region, in this case the eight Arctic states and the indigenous peoples as represented by the Permanent Participants of the Arctic Council. Making the ACIA salient entailed taking on issues that were important to specific actors, such as the connection to political rights in relation to indigenous peoples or the global role of...

The framing of Arctic climate change

How is climate change framed in the ACIA How do different framings of Arctic climate change relate to structures of international cooperation This section summarizes the main findings from the literature review of the historical context of the ACIA and the ACIA case study in an attempt to connect key framings to mechanisms by which structures of international cooperation can influence knowledge production. This section pays special attention to the possible role of different regimes. The ACIA...

Local global and regional preferences in the ACIA

The ACIA provides an illustration of how the global preference is complemented by a local perspective. As discussed in Chapter 6 of this dissertation, the local perspective in the ACIA scientific report is often connected to a social science knowledge base and to the participation of indigenous peoples. I argue that this local emphasis is a result of the power base that indigenous peoples have in the Arctic Council, which can be contrasted to the lack of such a power base in the IPCC where...

Other governance arrangements and international collaborations

Several governance arrangements and international scientific collaborations are important in relation to specific assessment chapters. They include the International Council for Exploration of the Sea (ICES) for structuring fish stock data, the International Whaling Commission (IWC) for data on marine mammals, and the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) for forestry data. In these cases, standardized reporting requirements and procedures for national data reporting create an easily...

Annika E Nilsson

Link ping Studies in Arts and Science No. 386 Link ping University, Department of Water and Environmental Studies Link ping Studies in Arts and Science No 386 At the Faculty of Arts and Science at Link pings University, research and doctoral studies are carried out within broad problem areas. Research is organized in interdisciplinary research environments and doctoral studies mainly in graduate schools. Jointly, they publish the series Link ping Studies in Arts and Science. This thesis comes...

The overview document

ACIA's implementation plan, as it was approved in Barrow in 2000, includes the production of a summary document. It is described as a comprehensive summary that synthesizes the main findings of the assessment and places in a policy-makers framework the state of our knowledge concerning the consequences of climate change over the entire Arctic region. For an analysis of science-policy interactions such a document is interesting because it is more likely to be read by a wide audience, including...

Structure and agency the regime concept revisited

Is the regime concept useful for analyzing the co-production of science and policy Can it be made more useful The purpose of this section is to discuss the regime concept based on the empirical findings of the ACIA case study and to discuss how the concept can be made more useful by making more explicit connections to some other theoretical approaches. Based on the fact that a large share of the international environmental science-policy dialogue occurs in the setting of formal regimes they...

A more versatile analytical toolbox

To summarize, although the concept of regimes is important to understanding the politics of knowledge production, its focus on issue-specific principles, norms, structures, and decision-making procedures may not be sufficient. First, a focus on structure needs to include attention to primary institutions of international society and their roles in strengthening the power of some knowledge traditions over others. Second, concepts from actor-network theory can be used for understanding the...

Glacial theory and early global climate models

The connection between global warming and an interest in the Arctic goes back to a major scientific controversy in the mid-1800s the riddle of the ice ages.1 The key question then was what could have caused the ice sheet that have left scraped bedrock and landscape features that resembled those seen close to glaciers in the Alps. Could changes in the atmosphere possibly lead to such cooling that the ice could begin to grow and later melt again A French physicist - Joseph Fourier - had already...

The Arctic Council

In September 1996, the AEPS was subsumed into the Arctic Council. Ideas about an Arctic Council had been presented in 1970 in Canada in the potential form of an Arctic Basin Treaty.192 By the end of the 1980s, they were again taken up by the Canadian government in an effort to energize the nascent AEPS and with impetus from a report by an Arctic Council Panel that included the Inuit Circumpolar Conference and two non-governmental organizations.193 The proposed structure was quite radical in...

An interdisciplinary approach

This is an interdisciplinary dissertation that emerged in an interdisciplinary research environment with input from a range of different perspectives. In addition, my personal background features a mixture of perspectives, including undergraduate training in biology and science journalism, professional experience as a science journalist, and a PhD education focusing of social science theory and methods. There are some weaknesses to such an interdisciplinary approach. For one, it is impossible...

Document

Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme - Minutes from the expert meeting in Oslo 12-16 Nov. 1990. The Rovaniemi Declaration. Declaration on the Protection of the Arctic Environment, 1991. State of the Arctic Environment. Updated draft proposal for Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP). Prepared by State Pollution Control, Norway. Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (AEPS), Rovaniemi, Finland, June 1991. Minutes of the First Meeting of the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment...

Analysis of scientific process

The process for the ACIA scientific report illustrates that even the scientific core of an assessment involves an interaction between the science and policy spheres. This is most clear at the beginning of the process, where the scope of the assessment, chapter outlines, and lead authors were being decided. The influences are not primarily in the form of policy makers pointing to specific questions to be addressed but in the indirect influences via policy-influenced organizations which provided...

The texts

The ACIA texts used to analyze the framing of climate change are ACIA's full scientific report Arctic Climate Impact Assessment1 and the so-called overview document, Impacts of a Warming Arctic2 In addition, the scientific reports from Working Group I and Working Group II from IPCC's third assessment were used Climate Change 2001. The Scientific Basis3 and Climate Change 2001. Impact, Adaptation and Vulnerability 4 The third IPCC report, Climate Change 2001. Mitigation, was not considered as...

Interview dates

June 8, 2005 November 10, 2004 September 9, 2005 Robert Corell ACIA Assessment Steering Committee chair. International Arctic Science Committee (IASC), US representative and chair of Regional Board. August 14, October 16 and November 25, 2003 January 22, February 23, March 24, May 3, October 13 and 22, and November 21, 2004 June 2005. John Crump Indigenous Peoples Secretariat, executive November 10 and 11, Rune Fjellheim Saami Council December 15, 2004 Liseanne Forand Alternate Senior Arctic...

Conclusions An emerging Arctic regime

Since the end of the Cold War, the Arctic has increasingly come forth as an international region with a collective voice in the international arena, captured by the expression The Age of the Arctic.218 The interaction of policy priorities and knowledge production has been central in building this regional identity. A key policy driver has been the ambition to cross the previous East-West divide and in this endeavour the important tools have been scientific and environmental cooperation. The...

Sciencepolicy relations

Knowledge production was and remains important to political cooperation in the Arctic. Initially, it provided an image of relatively neutral arena in which potential political cooperation could be tested Later, scientific assessments of environmental problems became a core activity of the political cooperation. According to Schram-Stokke, the Arctic Council can be seen as cognitive frontrunner in international relations.205 However the relationship between the intergovernmental cooperation and...

Does one size fit all

Climate change is most often framed as a global issue that has to be managed at the global level through international agreements. The climate system is seen as a truly global phenomenon that cannot be understood using only site-specific knowledge. Because emissions of greenhouse gases mix well in Earth's atmosphere, claims are often made that it does not matter where they come from. The logic has, therefore, been that climate change should be managed through a global convention. With such a...

Observations

After approval of ACIA's Executive Committee, I was able to attend the final of ten meetings of the Assessment Steering Committee and two meetings of the Assessment Integrations Team towards the end of the process. My role in these meeting was an observer participant. After an initial presentation round, which provided me an opportunity 12 Yin, Case Study Research. Design and Methods, 13 Stake, The Art of Case Study Research, chapter 7. 13 David Silverman, Interpreting Qualitative Data (London...

From Ice Ages to Bellwether for Global Warming The Arctic in Climate Science and Policy

In the past 150 years, the scientific image of the Arctic climate has shifted dramatically. From an initial interest in what caused the coming and going of ice ages in Earth's history, the Arctic is increasingly depicted as a bellwether for global warming. The change is linked not only to the internal development of science but also to the international dynamics that have affected both knowledge production and political order. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a historical backdrop for...

Analysis of the overview process

In contrast to both the IPCC and previous AMAP assessments, the ACIA placed the summary of the scientific report that was intended for a wider audience, including policy makers, apart from the policy domain and clearly with the scientific domain. For instance, the responsibility for the content was placed only with the lead authors of the scientific reports and not with the politically mandated AMAP Working Group and CAFF Working Group. The report was thus presented as attaining its credibility...

Box 62 Global regional and local

Scale words in ACIA's scientific chapters The table shows the significant correlations between mentions of some words referring to spatial scale (global, regional, local) and selected words in the chapters of the ACIA scientific report (0.01 confidence levels) based on Kendall's tau. The number of mentions in each chapter has been corrected for the size of the chapter. The following words were included in the analysis global, regional local, community, people, indigenous, political,...

Politics of the atmosphere

The 1960s and 1970s brought climate science into a new era. Scientifically, new technologies followed by new ways of looking at the Earth as a system laid the foundation for the science of climate change. Politically, we saw the birth of international environ 67 Linner, The Return of.Malthus, 102, 212. 68 Donald Worster, Nature's Economy. A History of Ecological Ideas (Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 1994) Linda Lear, Rachel Carson. Witness for Nature (New York Henry Holt and Company,...

Preface

Writing a book is like a journey that starts long before you know you are on the way and where there is no predetermined destination. As this dissertation is starting to become a book with words on pages, I have come to appreciate a number of circumstances that have contributed to making it possible. The recurring theme is the opportunity to think about the role of science in society. The starting point was no doubt growing up in a family in which science was part of every-day conversations,...

Regional arenas in international climate policy

One question in this dissertation has been what potentials and limitations do regional arenas hold for future climate policy. Based on the ACIA, it appears that a regional assessment process can provide an in-depth synthesis of available scientific knowledge regarding the region's role in global climate change and can also complement the global framing of climate change impacts with local perspectives that emphasize climate as one of many factors that affects vulnerability. The ACIA case also...

Evolution of the IPCC

Being an intergovernmental organization under the auspices of the United Nations, the IPCC is governed by the same rules of procedure as other UN bodies.141 The major decision-making body - the plenum - is thus a highly political arena. While this body plays a key role in approving outlines of the assessments produced by the IPCC and the final summaries for policy makers, the development of the outline and the actual writing of the scientific reports are carried out in three different working...

World Meteorological Organization WMO

Meteorology was an area in which international collaboration was already organized at the end of World War II, but not through governmental cooperation. However, in 1947, representatives of 31 countries attending the Eighth Conference of Directors of the IMO endorsed the transformation of IMO into the intergovernmental World Meteorological Organization (WMO), which was created in 1950. In 1951 the WMO became a special agency under the United Nations.45 According to Miller, the development of...

Coproduction in context the coconstruction of natures and cultures

Epistemologically, the idea of co-production has its basis in viewing science as a social activity and thus is the sociology of science.72 An example is a position statement by Callon, Law, and Rip in their book Mapping the Dynamics of Science and Technologys where they note that there is no one real pattern of scientific development or of the structure of society waiting to be discovered. Rather there is a multitude of perspectives, each struggling to extend its scope and its influence.73 This...

Aim and research questions

The aim of this dissertation is to examine how the interplay between policy and knowledge production affects the framing of Arctic climate change. The emphasis is on analyzing how structures of international cooperation can shape knowledge production. It will also discuss how knowledge production influences policy. The empirical basis is the history, process, and content of Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) with an analytical focus on the following questions An Agenda for Scientific...

The International Geophysical Year 195758

The idea of an international geophysical year was born by a small group of scientists in 1950 from an informal discussion on how new technology from the war, such as rockets and radar, could be used for advancing the science of geophysics.51 When they appealed for money, their ideas fit well into US Cold War military ambitions. This would be a way of collecting data in areas that would otherwise be inaccessible. In addition, the effort could be used to gain prestige in the ideological war...

Interviews with ACIA lead authors

To get a better understanding of the lead authors' own perceptions of the ACIA scientific report and its significance, semi-structured interviews were carried out with most of the lead authors (see Chapter 3 of this dissertation for method details). The interviews complement the content analysis of the documents by giving the lead authors an opportunity to highlight the major knowledge bases in their chapters and the scientific insights gained through the assessment process. In addition, some...

Highlighting the Arctic

Even if the regional scale was not a prominent point of departure for the analyses in ACIA's scientific chapters, the Arctic was still very much featured as a region with its own identity. As an illustration, the quantitative analysis revealed that the three most common meaning-bearing words in ACIA scientific report are Arctic, climate, and change. These words also occur among the top 20 words in almost all chapters, see Table 6.1. Climate and change are also among the most frequently used...

Analysis of early phase

Some key features of the ACIA were visible in the early phases of the process, even before its formal inception. This includes a close connection with the global climate assessments in the IPCC even to the point that ACIA's role was described, at times, as a support to the IPCC in its continued work on regional climate assessments. It is noteworthy that no strong connection was made with the global assessments of ozone depletion and ultraviolet radiation carried out by UNEP WMO, despite the...

Ethical considerations

Ethical considerations need to be made at a number of points in the research process, from defining a research question to reporting the results. Following an analytical matrix developed by Peterson, this section highlights ethical issues that are particularly pertinent for this project.26 The matrix identifies individuals or groups of people to whom considerations need to be made (e.g. scientific community, society, research participants) and prompts the investigator to highlight potential...

A multitude of methods

A case study approach allows for a multitude of methods to be used in gathering and analyzing information. The creation of multiple sources of data that can be evaluated in relation to each other has the advantage in that it allows for a triangulation or testing of ideas generated from one part of the study in relation to patterns revealed by a different 8 Alexander Wendt, On Constitutation and Causation in International Relations, Review of International Studies 24, (1998) 101. 9 Wendt, On...

A meeting of regional and global science arenas

Climate science relies heavily on data from the present and past, preferably with as good geographical coverage as possible. In the Arctic, this has always been a challenge. Not only have distances in sparsely populated areas and difficult weather conditions made it expensive and hard to collect data, but the strategic military location and the political division of the region into two parts during the Cold War kept large parts of the Arctic closed for international data collection. When...

The review process

According to ACIA's implementation plan, the overview was to be subject to peer review guided by the Assessment Steering Committee, and in London, they discussed how this review was to be conducted.99 The procedure that emerged was that lead authors were to review the entire document to ensure that their material was correctly represented. In addition, the Executive Committee of the Assessment Steering Committee would go through the document line by line. In the eyes of the team working on the...

Relating to structures

The concepts salience, legitimacy, and credibility do not address how actors or actor networks might use regimes to influence knowledge production and how norms, structures, and decision-making procedures may influence their role. To investigate the role of regimes, I will therefore also use another set of analytical concepts, from the literature on institutional dimensions of environmental change fit, interplay, and scale The purpose for introducing these concepts is to investigate their...

Scientific developments

Scientifically, the question of global warming was not a major issue at the time of the International Geophysical Year. Rather, the general understanding at the time was that the oceans would absorb almost all the excess carbon that humans may put in the atmosphere. Moreover, the war years had unusually cold weather, which made it less pertinent to discuss global warming. If anything was on the agenda, it was the perpetual question of the ice ages and the potential of a returning ice age on...

The sciencepolicy interface in a regional regime

What role do regimes play for how science influences policy This section highlights the policy-impact end of the tension between the co-production of science and policy with a focus on the relationship between the Arctic Council, as a regime (the structure of cooperation), and different actors in the ACIA process. As discussed in Chapter 2 of this dissertation, previous studies have identified three factors as essential for scientific assessments to have policy impact salience, credibility, and...

IPCC and WMO

The IPCC plays a key role in a number of the ACIA chapters. It is most prominent in the Chapter 4. Future Climate Change. Modeling and Scenarios for the Arctic. In this case, both text and lead authors interviews identify the IPCC as the point of departure, frame of reference, and the standard setter in the field. The IPCC report was the starting point for everything we did. That's where we started, said one of the lead authors.95 It appears that IPCC has served as a connection point for much...

An analytical framework

The literature reviewed in this chapter reveals two major tensions. Analytically, different theories tend to focus on either structure or agency. In addition, two fields of activity that relate to each other have been identified politics and knowledge production. This section elaborates on those two tensions and introduces some analytical concepts that will be used to study them. 87 Sheila Jasanoff, Ordering Knowledge, Ordering Society, in States of Knowledge. The Co-production of Science and...

Who owns the popular science synthesis

One might assume that the placing of the overview document in the scientific sphere, shielded from the direct influence of policy, would have given it more credibility among the scientists who participated in the assessment. However, it appears that the overview document actually had some problems in this respect, too. Even if the scientists signed a paper ensuring that its content reflected that of the scientific report, remarks from some of the lead authors suggested a lack of ownership over...

The role of regimes in the politics of scale

What role do regimes play in the politics of scale As already alluded to in the example of the WMO, norms can encourage regime members to muster financial and technical resources for knowledge production with a certain scale preference, in turn reinforcing a particular framing. By facilitating the mustering of resources for new technical and administrative systems, regimes can provide a venue through which political preferences become embedded in technology and in the way society's knowledge...

Conclusions of postwar development and politics of the atmosphere

The period after World War II up until the 1990s and the firm establishment of climate science and policy into international governance can be characterized as a time of strong drive towards multilateralism as a political ideal and internationalization of science. The drivers for the internationalization of science were both political and scientific. Geopoli-tically the United States, in particular, has at times used these ideals as tools in promoting liberal democracy and keeping communism at...

Nonindigenous people city dwellers and economic activities

As the report itself points out, there is very little assessment of the impact of climate change on the non-indigenous population of the Arctic. Specifically, in a listing of what needs to be improved in future assessments, the scientific report states that A critical self-assessment of the ACIA shows achievements as well as deficiencies Impacts on people's lives covered indigenous communities but had little information concerning other arctic residents.52 This lack in the assessment can not be...

The Scientific Framing of Arctic Climate Change

The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the framing of climate change in the scientific and overview reports of the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA). What issues are brought to the fore, why, and by whom It will analyze the framing in the context of the knowledge base that is used for the assessment and discuss what circumstances and drivers might explain why the reports place more emphasis on some issues and less on others. As background for a discussion on the role of regional...

Earth system studies

At about the same time that climate was starting to become an issue of international politics, the scientific discourse was widened to refer not only to climate change but to global change. There was increasing interest in understanding the global system dynamics across a range of spatial scales and range of disciplines. For this purpose, ICSU created the International Global Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) in 1996 and the smaller social science counterpart the International Human Dimensions...

Climate science in a social context the birth of environmentalism

The Cold War had implications for the larger social context of research. Specifically, the testing of nuclear bombs alerted the general public to the destructive power of technology and that human society could have a major impact on the environment. Moreover, it became clear that the effects could be geographically far-ranging. It was suddenly possible to think that human society could be a threat to itself.67 In the United States, protests against nuclear tests became an early embryo of the...

Qualitative content analysis of ACIA report

The aim of the initial text analysis was to explore the framings of climate change and the knowledge base in the chapters, rather than to test a specific hypothesis. The term framing is used to capture how certain aspects of an issue are highlighted.9 Frames are a way to describe basic cognitive structures that guide our perceptions of new information and how we represent an issue in communicating with others. In other words, they are the cognitive structures that guide what parts of the world...

A soft law regime paved the way for indigenous priorities

Based on the ACIA, it also appears that the nature of the regional regime in relation to global climate policy arenas can play a role for what is assessed and the policy outcomes. For example, in the Arctic Council setting, indigenous peoples were able to participate both in the scientific framing of climate change and in the policy process, leading to the inclusion of indigenous observations and knowledge that highlighted the impact on their cultures and livelihoods. This illustrates the point...

Global developments

Workshop in Tromso to identify needs and requirement for an assessment Presentation of a proposal for the ACIA to the Arctic Council Large scoping workshop to discuss content of the ACIA Arctic Council approves ACIA's implementation plan First joint meeting between AMAP and CAFF regarding the ACIA Second joint AMAP-CAFF meeting decides on process for the ACIA policy document Cross-fertilization meeting among ACIA chapters and first meeting with science writer and with Policy Drafting Team....

Silence on anthropogenic emissions

The ACIA does not assess anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases from the Arctic. According to interview material about the initial framing of what the assessment should be about, emissions were considered a global issue and thus naturally a part of IPCC's global assessments, but there is no explicit discussion of this topic in the formal documentation.87 The overview document also places emission assessments and mitigation with the global arena. It states that mitigation, to slow the speed...

Filling the outline

The next meeting of the Assessment Steering Committee, directly after the Barrow Ministerial, was the first time the organizers met with the lead authors who, together with the contributing authors, would carry out the brunt of scientific work in ACIA. The chapter outline evolved, including a new introductory chapter, a separation of terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems into two chapters, and much more detail under each heading. However, interviews with lead authors indicate that the outline...

Agency and actor networks in focus

While regimes and primary institutions can be important concepts for highlighting structures, the history and process of the ACIA also illustrate that actors and structures interact. For example, the ACIA policy process certainly could not be understood without paying attention to the roles of various state actors, including how some Nordic countries wanted to use the Arctic regime for pushing certain climate policies and how the United States in particular challenged this. I believe this clash...

Weather observations and early international coordination

Instruments for scientific observation of the weather became available in the early 1700s, with the barometer and thermometer. At the Stockholm Observatory, there is an unbroken temperature record since 1756. There was also an increasing theoretical understanding about the connections between temperature and the atmospheric movements. International collaboration came early to meteorology. As early as 1657, King Ferdinand II of Tuscany established an international meteorological network where...

Box 61 Mapping the chapters in ACIAs scientific report

To get an overview over differences in how frequently different selected words were used in the chapters of ACIA's scientific report, a principal component analysis was used to generate a two-dimensional map. It is based on the following words global, regional, local, community, people, indigenous, political, temperature, precipitation, ice, snow, permafrost, ecosystem, species, marine, terrestrial, freshwater, atmosphere, physical, chemical, economic, social, biology, cultural, impact,...

International scientific collaboration

International collaboration has been a theme in climate data gathering and analysis. During the war years, it was hampered by geopolitical circumstances and relatively weak institutional structures at the international level. For example, both the International Meteorological Organization (IMO), and the International Council for Scientific Unions (ICSU) were non-governmental organizations. After World War II, the international scene changed. Powerful state interests favored the building of...

Political cooperation

The diplomatic activities set in motion by Gorbachev's speech had an eye towards formal political cooperation.171 Several other circumstances favored the formation of a circumpolar regime at this time. Already alluded to was the lessening military tension between East and West, which was probably a prerequisite for any new initiatives. In addition, a number of events made the need for more knowledge about the Arctic environment urgent, including the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in...

Key concepts and analytical points of departure

At a general level, our understanding or knowledge about an issue can be captured in how we frame it. Framing refers to how we define a problem, its impacts, and potential solutions in ways that highlight certain aspects and downplay others.19 Frames depict the basic cognitive structures that guide how the world around us becomes visible to us.20 In scientific assessments, framing influences what features of an issue are included or excluded within a specific context. Framing is important...

The Permanent Participants

The political actors that most eagerly picked up ACIA's message were no doubt the Permanent Participants. As described in Chapter 5 of this dissertation, they also played a critical role in publicizing the image of the Arctic's extreme sensitivity to climate change and the implications that this has for its inhabitants. How can this be understood in relation to salience, legitimacy, and credibility It appears that the combination of the ACIA chair having an active interest in having indigenous...

Summary

Climate change has often been framed as a global issue but slow progress in the global climate negotiations and an increasing need to plan for local adaptation have made it increasingly salient to also discuss the potential of other arenas for climate policy and knowledge production. This dissertation analyzes the interplay between science and policy at the international regional level based on a case study of an assessment of the impacts of climate change in the Arctic. In this case, the...

A local focus

The local focus of the ACIA scientific report is prominent in chapters that also frequently use words such as cultural, adaptation, indigenous, social, politics, economic, and resources (see Box 6.2). Three of these chapters rely heavily on case studies and feature an active involvement of indigenous peoples. There thus appears to be a connection between indigenous peoples, the local scale, and social sciences. There are at least two potential drivers in this connection that should be...

Notes on language and word choices

In writing about the Arctic and about climate, one makes choices not only about what to include but also what words to use and how to write them. 30 Donna J. Haraway, Situated Knowledges The Science Question in Feminism and the Privilege of Partial Perspective, in Simians, Cyborgs, and Women, ed. Donna Haraway, (London Free Association Books, 1991). 31 This includes being married to the Swedish representative on the Working Group of the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP). During...

The scientific report

At the core of international environmental assessments is usually a scientific document that reviews available literature and data on a specified topic. The majority of the work is done by scientists who are considered to be experts in their fields. This has been the norm within the IPCC and in AMAP's assessments of pollution issues in the Arctic. Other actors, such as local stakeholders, have limited influence on this core activity of gathering information and synthesizing the available...

An emerging Arctic regime

If Arctic scientific cooperation was stifled by military and strategic concerns during the Cold War, the late 1980s and the 1990s signaled a new era for this part of the world. Environmental and scientific cooperation became key policy concerns. Towards the turn of the millennium, the Arctic was increasingly creating a new international role for itself 153 Selin and Linn r, The Quest for Global Sustainability. with an onus on environmental stewardship and attempting to define what sustainable...

The Policy Drafting Team

Despite some precedents from AMAP, it was unclear how the policy process should be set up. A complicating factor was that ACIA was a joint project between IASC, AMAP, and CAFF. At AMAP and CAFF's second joint meeting in Stockholm of August 2001, the task at hand was discussed and a decision made to use a handout developed at the meeting as a basis for a proposal to the SAOs Senior Arctic Officials for preparing the ACIA Policy Document. The AMAP and CAFF secretariats are charged with scoping...

Boundary organizations as connecting point

Scientific assessments are processes in which the boundaries between science and policy are constantly negotiated in order to ensure that science and policy have authority in their respective arenas.11 Such negotiations are in fact central to science-policy relationship in general and a way to uphold the boundary between the two spheres and to make sure that the knowledge is generally accepted as valid and useful.12 This is aptly illustrated by the ACIA process in the increasing demarcation of...

Taking shape

The implementation plan lays out how the summary document is to be produced This volume will be prepared by the ASC Assessment Steering Committee in concert with a scientific editor and lead authors in a simple, jargon-free language meant for policymakers and the broader public, and will be subjected to peer review guided by the ASC. In ACIA's jargon, this document later became the overview document. The responsibility for writing it was placed with a science writer, who worked closely together...

Governance arrangements and actor networks

As a complement to the discussion of the framings of climate change in the ACIA reports, this section discusses the role of international governance arrangements and actor networks. It is an attempt to analyze more in depth when and how they might be important in shaping the knowledge base used in the assessment and thus some potential mechanisms for how the policy contexts influence knowledge production. A number of governance arrangements and organizations appear with specific references in...

Defining the content

In the ACIA, the Assessment Steering Committee played a driving role in the early process of defining the content of the scientific report. Initially AMAP and CAFF are represented by their secretariats, IASC by senior scientists, and the indigenous peoples by one of the Permanent Participants in the Arctic Council. In the early phase of the ACIA, the Arctic countries also had either experts in climate UV or representatives from their political delegations to AMAP and CAFF present. As soon as...