Virginia Villafane Kristina Sundbck Flix L Figueroa and E Walter Helbling

Table of contents

Abstract 359

11.1 Introduction 359

11.2 Methodology to assess UVR effects on photosynthesis 360

11.2.1 Exposure of samples 360

11.2.1.1 In situ incubations 361

11.2.1.2 Simulated in situ incubations 363

11.2.1.3 Supplemented UV-B or UVR 363

11.2.1.4 Artificial radiation 364

11.2.2 Materials and filters 364

11.2.3 Variables measured and experimental approaches 364

11.3 Effects of UVR on phytoplankton photosynthesis 366

11.3.1 Short-term effects 366

11.3.2 Long-term effects 370

11.4 Effects of UVR on microphytobenthos photosynthesis 371

11.4.1 Short-term effects 371

11.4.2 Long-term effects 371

11.4.3 Are UV-B effects on microphytobenthos habitat-specific? 373

11.5 Effects of UVR on marine macrophyte photosynthesis 373

11.6 Carbon and nitrogen allocation 375

11.7 Mechanisms to reduce the effects of UVR on photosynthesis 376

11.8 Other photosynthesis-related effects 378

11.8.1 Nutrient incorporation/assimilation and enzyme activities 378

11.8.2 Pigments 379

11.8.3 Cell morphology and size 381

11.9 UVR effects on aquatic photosynthesis: conclusions and future research 382

Acknowledgements 383

References 383

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