Peter R Leavitt Dominic A Hodgson and Reinhard Pienitz

Table of contents

Abstract 511

16.1 Introduction 511

16.2 Impacts of UVR on lake biota 512

16.2.1 Natural controls of UVR in lakes 512

16.2.2 Impacts of UVR on aquatic biota 513

16.3 Paleoecological methods for UVR reconstruction 514

16.3.1 Microfossil indices of past UVR environments 515

16.3.2 Other microfossil metrics of past UVR exposure 519

16.3.3 Biogeochemical indices of past UVR exposure 520

16.3.4 Sedimentary organic matter as an index of past UVR penetration 523

16.4 Fossil evidence of past UVR environments in lakes 524

16.4.1 Holocene climate change 524

16.4.2 Early lake evolution 526

16.4.3 Historical changes in polar UVR flux 529

16.4.4 Rapid variation in UVR environments 533

16.5 Conclusions 537

Acknowledgements 537

References 538

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