Dag O Hessen

Table of contents

Abstract 401

12.1 Introduction 401

12.2 Direct damage and means of protection (lines of defense) 403

12.2.1 Seasonal and spatial responses 404

12.2.2 Photoprotective pigmentation 406

12.2.2.2 Melanin 406

12.2.2.3 Carotenoids 410

12.2.2.4 Other UVR screening compounds 410

12.2.2.5 UV, pigments, predation and evolutionary trade-offs 411

12.2.3 Anti-oxidants 411

12.2.4 Recovery and DNA repair 412

12.3 Indirect effects 414

12.3.1 ROSin water 414

12.3.2 Food web effects 415

12.4 Ambient parameters and their interaction with UV 416

12.4.1 Oxygen and temperature 416

12.4.2 UV and water chemistry 418

12.5 Taxa specific responses/evidence for in situ effects of UVR on pelagic metazoans 419

12.5.1 Case studies of UVR and Zooplankton 419

12.5.2 Case studies of UVR and vertebrates 422

References 424

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