Anastazia T Banaszak

Table of contents

Abstract 331

10.1 Introduction 331

10.2 Screening mechanisms 332

10.2.1 Physical screening 332

10.2.1.1 Mucus 332

10.2.1.2 Sporopollenin 332

10.2.1.3 Multiple cell walls 332

10.2.2 Chemical screening 333

10.2.2.1 Mycosporines 333

10.2.2.2 Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) 333

10.2.2.3 Scytonemin 339

10.2.2.4 3-Hydroxykynurenine 340

10.2.2.5 Melanin 340

10.2.2.6 Secondary metabolites 340

10.2.2.7 Fluorescent pigments (FPs) 341

10.3 Quenching mechanisms 341

10.3.1 Antioxidants 341

10.3.2 Carotenoids and the xanthophyll cycle 342

10.4 Repair mechanisms 343

10.4.1 Protein repair mechanisms 344

10.4.2 DNA repair and DNA damage tolerance mechanisms 344

10.4.2.1 Photoreactivation (DNA photorepair or photoenzymatic repair) 345

10.4.2.2 Light-independent nucleotide excision repair (dark repair) 345

10.4.2.3 Dimer bypass (translesion synthesis) 347

10.4.2.4 Recombinational repair (post replication repair) 347

10.5 Conclusions and future directions 347

Acknowledgements 347

References 348

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